Taking Nature's Pulse: Section 4: Major Findings, Appendices, Endnotes
4. Major Findings
Biodiversity exists at the level of genes, species and ecosystems, and all of these levels are integrated through ecological processes such as fire, predation and decomposition. These processes play a vital role in shaping biodiversity by acting at a range of scales, with varying intensity, frequency and duration. The resulting synergy means that biodiversity is much greater than the sum of its parts.
British Columbia has high ecosystem diversity as a result of its mountainous topography, coastal location and the resulting variety of local climates. Topography has limited human activities in much of the province, and, combined with B.C.'s brief history of non-indigenous settlement and intensive industrial development, has resulted in relatively high levels of ecological integrity in the province's more remote and inaccessible areas. Conversely, these factors have concentrated impacts in low-elevation areas where ecological integrity has been significantly compromised.
British Columbia's extraordinary biodiversity cannot be taken for granted. Throughout the province there is compelling scientific evidence that it is being significantly altered by individual and cumulative stresses result- ing from human activities that are impairing ecological integrity. Climate change is an overriding impact that is already taking a toll on B.C.'s biodiversity and is expected to become an increasingly significant threat in the medium and long term. Loss of biodiversity threatens the ecological services on which we all depend.
The Status Of Biodiversity In B.C. Can Be Summarized As Follows:
British Columbia's biodiversity is globally significant because of its variety and integrity, but without immediate action, it is vulnerable to rapid deterioration, especially in light of climate change.
The concept of ecological resilience - that is, the capacity of an ecosystem to cope with disturbance or stress - is fundamental to any discussion of biodiversity and an important component of ecological integrity. Ecosystems are complex, dynamic and adaptive systems that are rarely at equilibrium. Ecological resilience determines the amount of stress and alteration that can occur in an ecosystem without it losing its defining characteristics, as well as the speed with which it recovers. A resilient ecosystem can better withstand shocks and rebuild itself without changing into a different state that is controlled by a different set of processes. When ecosystems become simplified through the elimination of components or processes, they become increasingly vulnerable to biophysical or human-induced events.
Trend data for B.C. show that declines in biodiversity are occurring at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels and that the integrity of key and special elements of biodiversity is being lost. Meanwhile, major gaps in our knowledge of the province's biodiversity hinder our capacity to understand and respond to this situation. Without immediate and effective action, British Columbia's remarkable biological richness may be lost.
4.2 Development of the Major Findings
The numbered major findings that follow provide a synthesis of the status assessment presented in Sections 2 and 3. Development of the major findings was guided by three principles: that the findings be supported by this report; that they add value to the report (e.g., by pointing out convergence of themes, places, etc.); and that they cover the full scope of the report.
The process of developing the major findings was iterative. The Technical Subcommittee of Biodiversity BC initiated the process and then sought input from scientific experts and direction from the Biodiversity BC Steering Committee.
The order in which the major findings are presented in Section 4.3 follows the structure of this report, rather than representing any prioritization. The findings related to ecosystem, species and genetic diversity focus on elements within each of these levels of organization that are of current conservation concern. The other find- ings are not limited to elements of conservation concern. All of the supporting information provided for each major finding is referenced in corresponding parts of Sections 1 to 3.
4.3 The Major Findings
Ecosystems are made up of plants, animals and microorganisms, all interacting with the abiotic environment and integrated by ecological processes that play a critical role in shaping them. Ecosystems that maintain all of their component parts and processes are the most resilient.
Ecosystems can be described and assessed at a range of scales. The broadest scale used in this report is land cover, which classifies areas (excluding human-dominated and water) as forest, alpine, glacier, wetland and grassland. The primary scale used in this report is biogeoclimatic zones, which are broad geographic areas shar- ing similar climate and vegetation. Within B.C. there are 16 biogeoclimatic zones: 12 forested (Coastal Western Hemlock, Coastal Douglas-fir, Spruce-Willow-Birch, Boreal White and Black Spruce, Sub-Boreal Pine-Spruce, Sub-Boreal Spruce, Mountain Hemlock, Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir, Montane Spruce, Interior Cedar- Hemlock, Interior Douglas-fir and Ponderosa Pinea); three alpine (Boreal Altai Fescue Alpine, Coastal Mountain- heather Alpine and Interior Mountain-heather Alpine); and one grassland (Bunchgrass). Major Drainage Areas were used as the basis for additional broad-scale analysis focusing on freshwater ecosystems.
The finest scale used in this report is ecological communities, of which 611 have been described in the prov- ince to date. Ecological community classification is incomplete for some biogeoclimatic zones, most notably the alpine zones, but the current list represents a majority of the province's ecological communities.
Freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems overlap with the marine realm in estuaries and intertidal areas.
1. At the broad scale, four biogeoclimatic zones, representing approximately 5% of British Columbia's land base, are of provincial conservation concern.
B.C.'s three dry-forest biogeoclimatic zones (Coastal Douglas-fir, Interior Douglas-fir and Ponderosa Pine) and one grassland zone (Bunchgrass) have been assessed as being of conservation concern. Nine of the province's forested zones and the three alpine zones are not currently assessed as being of conservation concern. The alpine zones are expected to change dramatically in response to climate change and, in many places, will disappear entirely, along with the species that presently inhabit them.
a The Ponderosa Pine biogeoclimatic zone consists of a mix of forest and grassland, but is generally dominated by trees.
2. At the fine scale, more than half of the ecological communities described in British Columbia are of provincial conservation concern.
Ecological communities of conservation concern are found in every one of the province's biogeoclimatic zones. The Coastal Western Hemlock zone has the greatest number of communities of concern. The highest percent- ages of communities of concern occur in the four biogeoclimatic zones of conservation concern and in the Coastal Western Hemlock zone.
3. British Columbia has a majority of the global range for six of the 16 biogeoclimatic zones that occur in the province.
Two of B.C.'s biogeoclimatic zones - the Sub-boreal Pine-Spruce and the Sub-boreal Spruce - occur nowhere else in the world. The other four zones that have more than half of their global range in B.C. are the Coastal Douglas-fir, Interior Cedar-Hemlock, Montane Spruce and Mountain Hemlock. Five of these zones are relatively intact; the exception is the Coastal Douglas-fir zone.
4. The Coastal Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zone is the rarest biogeoclimatic zone in British Columbia and is of great conservation concern.
The Coastal Douglas-fir zone has the highest density of species that are of both provincial and global conser- vation concern of any B.C. biogeoclimatic zone. It also has the highest proportion of areas covered by roads or other linear development and has experienced the highest level of ecosystem conversion. Within this zone, almost all of the forests have been logged since European contact, only about 10% of the Garry oak meadows remain and wetlands are under severe pressure.
5. Low-elevation grassland communities are the rarest land cover type in British Columbia and are concentrated in the biogeoclimatic zones of conservation concern.
Grasslands occupy less than 1% of the provincial land base, but are home to a disproportionate number of species of conservation concern. They are located primarily in the Bunchgrass, Ponderosa Pine and Interior Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. A large percentage of the grasslands in these biogeoclimatic zones have been lost due to ecosystem conversion and fire suppression, are being degraded by motorized recreation and livestock grazing, and are being impacted by alien species. In the north, grasslands occur at low elevations in the Boreal White and Black Spruce zone, on warm, dry, south-facing slopes. These already-rare grasslands are becoming rarer due to climate change, as warmer, wetter conditions result in encroachment by woody plants.
6. Significant areas of wetlands in British Columbia have been converted or degraded, particularly in the two Major Drainage Areas of greatest conservation concern.
Wetlands are among the most biologically diverse and productive of all ecosystems. They provide habitat for many species and fulfill a broad range of ecological functions. Although they cover only a small area of the provincial land base, their contribution to biodiversity conservation is greatly disproportionate to their size. B.C. has nine Major Drainage Areas, and wetlands are particularly impacted in the two that are of greatest con- servation concern - those of the Columbia and Fraser rivers. The Fraser River alone drains roughly one-quarter of the province. In the Lower Fraser Valley, which extends from the Strait of Georgia inland to Hope and from the north shore mountains to the U.S. border, more than half of the original wetland area has disappeared. In the south Okanagan, which is part of the Columbia River drainage, about 85% of the original wetland area has disappeared.
7. Estuaries are of concern in British Columbia because of their rarity and the level of human impacts to them.
Estuaries occur where freshwater systems meet the sea. Even though they account for less than 3% of the province's coastline, an estimated 80% of all coastal wildlife relies on estuary habitat. The Fraser River estuary is one of B.C.'s most important areas for seasonal concentrations of birds. Estuaries have experienced significant degradation as a result of human activities and are highly vulnerable to projected sea-level rise due to climate change.
Diversity Of Species
Species are genetically distinct groups of organisms that are capable of successfully interbreeding. Species interact within ecosystems, performing essential ecological functions. Only about 3,800 species have been as- sessed to date in British Columbia, but the actual number of species in the province may well exceed 50,000 (not including single-celled organisms). Some parts of the province (primarily unroaded and unsettled areas) have not been surveyed and some taxonomic groups remain largely unstudied. The highest species richness documented in B.C. occurs in the areas with the largest human populations.
8. Of the species assessed to date in British Columbia, 43% are of provincial conservation concern and these are concentrated in the four biogeoclimatic zones of conservation concern.
The number of species of provincial conservation concern is increasing as more species are assessed and as populations of previously secure species decline. Species currently known to be of provincial conservation concern include a high proportion of mosses, reptiles and turtles, and ferns and fern allies. There is a generally declining trend in provincial conservation status for three of the best-studied taxonomic groups: vascular plants of highest conservation concern, mammals and freshwater fish. A disproportionate number of B.C.'s species of conservation concern are concentrated in southern, low-elevation areas. Six percent of the species assessed to date in B.C. are also of global conservation concern.
9. British Columbia is known to have a majority of the global range for 99 species.
Of the species assessed to date, 3% have a majority of their global range in B.C. Of the 99 species that have a majority of their global range in B.C., 15 are found nowhere else and 30 are of global conservation concern. Most of B.C.'s species of conservation concern are shared with other jurisdictions.
Genetic variation within species facilitates adaptation to changing environments, and B.C. has a dispropor- tionately high level of genetic diversity relative to its species diversity. The province's glacial history and varied climate and topography (including many coastal islands) have fostered the evolution of local adaptations by creating unique local conditions and reducing dispersal between populations. As a result, many species occur in the province as complexes of geographically distinct subspecies, which differ from each other in appearance, environmental tolerances and/or behaviour, as well as in genetic make-up.
Due to B.C.'s large size and biophysical variability, the province is home to many species that are at the edge of their range. Such populations are often genetically distinct from populations at the core of a species' range. B.C. also has a high density of hybrid zones, where divergent groups overlap and some species hybridize as a result of landscape change and historic expansion and contraction of species ranges. These hybrid zones con- tribute to genetic diversity in both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in B.C.
10. British Columbia has a high level of genetic diversity within species, which is critical for adaptation and resilience.
Currently, 457 subspecies, ecotypes, populations and varieties of plants and animals are identified as being of provincial conservation concern in B.C. and 38 of these are found nowhere else. Genetic diversity within spe- cies is critical for their persistence in changing environments. For example, there are more than 400 genetically distinct populations among five species of Pacific salmon. This variability has allowed these species to use all available stream systems in B.C. and provides resilience to salmon and the functions they perform.
Key And Special Elements Of Biodiversity
Key elements are pieces of the biodiversity puzzle that are essential and/or have a disproportionate influence on ecosystem function. They may be components, structures or functions. Special elements are components of biodiversity that are uncommon and, in some cases, found nowhere else. They include seasonal concentrations of species, special communities and noteworthy features.
11. The flow of water in lakes, streams, wetlands and groundwater systems is being seriously impacted in British Columbia by dams, water diversions, logging, stream crossings and climate change.
Dams and water diversions directly affect lakeshore, streamside and aquatic ecosystems and the organisms that live in them. The disruption of connectivity in stream systems can prevent fish passage and the flow of nutri- ents and sediments. Groundwater-surface water interactions determine the minimum flow for many streams in winter, when surface water is locked up as snow and ice, and during periods when there is no precipitation. Climate change is already having noticeable effects on streamflow patterns in some areas of B.C., and projected changes associated with warmer temperatures will likely affect all freshwater systems within the province.
12. The natural disturbance processes that shape British Columbia's forests are being disrupted by human activities.
Forests are the dominant land cover type in B.C. The province's forested ecosystems have been shaped by topog- raphy and climate, as well as by natural disturbance regimes (which are themselves influenced by topography and climate). The landscape structure of forested ecosystems is influenced by the timing, frequency, magnitude and severity of disturbances, and by the prevailing type of disturbance (e.g., stand-replacing fires versus single- tree-replacing dynamics). Human activities can change all of these key factors. In B.C.'s temperate rainforests, logging of old-growth stands is the greatest concern. In the province's other forests, the major concerns are fire suppression, logging and monoculture replanting. In addition to disrupting natural disturbance processes, these human activities also have other impacts on biodiversity, such as effects on soils, hydrology and individual species. Climate change has already begun to exacerbate these impacts (most notably with the rapid expansion and intensification of the current mountain pine beetle outbreak owing in large part to the warming of winter minimum temperatures) and will continue to do so.
13. British Columbia's mainland coast features a number of interconnected key and special elements of biodiversity: intact temperate rainforest, an intact large mammal predator-prey system, glacially influenced streams and salmon-driven nutrient cycling.
British Columbia has approximately one-fifth of the world's remaining temperate rainforest, with the majority of the province's undeveloped rainforest located along the middle and northern sections of the mainland coast. The mainland coast is also the largest contiguous area in the province with intact large mammal predator-prey systems (i.e., all native large mammals are present), which are vital elements in many natural communities. Anadromous salmon play a critical role in nutrient cycling throughout their B.C. range, but this process is es- pecially important on the mainland coast, because of the overlap with the three other special elements. Salmon integrate the terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms by serving as a key food source for many predators and scavengers and providing important nutrients to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They are susceptible to cumulative impacts occurring across all three realms and impacts resulting from climate change are of particular concern. One way that climate change is expected to affect salmon is through impacts on glacier-fed streams. In the short term, melting glaciers will likely discharge more water into some B.C. streams and rivers, which may damage salmon habitat. In the longer term, salmon may be affected by reduced water volume, and possibly temperature change, in glacier-fed streams and rivers, especially during the summer months.
14. The majority of British Columbia has intact or relatively intact predator-prey systems, but a major threat to them is motorized access and associated human activities.
B.C. is globally significant for its richness of large carnivore and ungulate species and the fact that most of the province has intact, or mostly intact, large mammal predator-prey systems, which provide critical ecosystem services. Large mammal predator-prey systems are directly impacted by the disturbance and fragmentation associated with motorized access, including access for off-road vehicles. Roads fragment populations, reduce gene flow and provide access that can result in increased direct mortality due to hunting, poaching, motor ve- hicle collisions and wildlife-human conflicts. Motorized access also causes disturbance, which displaces species from their habitats.
15. British Columbia has many significant seasonal concentrations of species that are vulnerable to human impacts.
Seasonal concentrations of species are vulnerable to human and non-human impacts. In B.C., seasonal concen- trations often involve migratory species, including birds travelling along the Pacific Flyway and salmon migrating through coastal marine waters. Migratory species are affected by conditions throughout their range and B.C. has a responsibility for species that migrate through the province. Many estuaries along the B.C. coast and wetlands in the interior provide critical habitat for seasonal concentrations of migrating shorebirds, waterfowl and other birds. Other seasonal concentrations of species include seabird nesting colonies on coastal islands and pre- nesting or wintering aggregations. Island seabird populations are particularly threatened by alien species.
Threats To Biodiversity
The most significant stresses on biodiversity in B.C. are ecosystem conversion (the direct and complete conver- sion of natural ecosystems to landscapes for human uses), ecosystem degradation (change to the structure of a natural system, which impacts the ecosystem's composition and function) and alien species (species that oc- cur outside their native range due to human introduction), followed by environmental contamination, species disturbance and species mortality.
The most significant categories of human activity that impact biodiversity in B.C. are climate change and specific practices associated with agriculture, recreation, urban and rural development, forestry, transporta- tion and utility corridors, oil and gas development and water development. Specific practices associated with grazing, industrial development, mining and aquaculture also have important impacts on biodiversity in the province. Note that it is not these economic sectors, but some specific practices undertaken by people involved in the sectors, that impact biodiversity.
Although these factors may operate separately, losses to biodiversity generally originate from more than one source. Multiple impacts can affect biodiversity at a magnitude greater than the sum of the individual impacts, can be cumulative over time and can trigger cascading impacts on other components of biodiversity.
16. Ecosystem conversion from urban/rural development and agriculture has seriously impacted British Columbia's biodiversity, especially in the three rarest biogeoclimatic zones.
Although only about 2% of the province's land base has been converted to human uses, the magnitude of con- version is dramatically higher in the three rarest biogeoclimatic zones: Coastal Douglas-fir, Bunchgrass and Ponderosa Pine. Ecosystem conversion related to agriculture is most intensive in areas with rich soil, such as floodplains and valley bottoms. Urban and rural development is concentrated in these same areas, particularly in the lower Fraser River Valley, on southeastern Vancouver Island and in the Okanagan. The most immediate impact of urban and rural development is the conversion of natural landscapes to buildings, parking lots and playing fields, resulting in loss of species and ecosystems, along with impairment of ecosystem functions.
17. Ecosystem degradation from forestry, oil and gas development, and transportation and utility corridors has seriously impacted British Columbia's biodiversity.
Forestry-related activities affect species and ecosystems in various ways, including habitat fragmentation, simplification of forest communities, alteration of age-class distribution, tree species distribution and stand structure, and loss of key habitat elements such as wildlife trees and coarse woody debris. Ecosystem degrada- tion associated with terrestrial oil and gas exploration and extraction is mainly concentrated in the Boreal White and Black Spruce biogeoclimatic zone in the northeast corner of the province. Ecosystem degradation associ- ated with transportation corridors, seismic lines and other linear features includes fragmentation, alteration of the hydrology of water courses and increased sedimentation in water bodies. Areas of the province with high densities of transportation and utility corridors include the Coastal Douglas-fir, Ponderosa Pine, Bunchgrass and Interior Douglas-fir zones.
18. Alien species are seriously impacting British Columbia's biodiversity, especially on islands and in lakes.
Alien species can have many impacts, including alteration of forest fire cycles, nutrient cycling and hydrology, displacement of populations of native plants and animals, competition for resources, predation, disease intro- duction, and facilitation of the spread of other non-native species. Climate change and ecosystem conversion and degradation facilitate the invasion of alien species. Although alien species invasion is often a secondary impact, it can be a major independent impact in isolated systems, such as islands and lakes, which often have significant genetic and species-level diversity.
19. Climate change is already seriously impacting British Columbia and is the foremost threat to biodiversity.
The impacts of climate change on biodiversity in B.C. are predicted to be both extensive and intensive, and will be exacerbated by non-climate factors related to human activity, such as land-use changes, pollution and resource use. Although measured trends and observed responses clearly indicate that climate change is under- way, the full extent of its impact is yet to be felt. It is expected to be the greatest overriding threat to biodiversity in the future. Some species will be lost, while the ranges of others will change. B.C.'s proportion of the global range of many species may increase due to northward shifts in distributions resulting from climate change; this is already occurring for some species. This trend may be accentuated by the tendency for species to collapse to the edge of their distributions. All of B.C.'s biogeoclimatic zones will be either changed or eliminated as a result of climate change.
20. The cumulative impacts of human activities in British Columbia are increasing and are resulting in the loss of ecosystem resilience.
The cumulative impacts of human activities are greater than the sum of their individual effects. Compromised ecosystems and populations are more vulnerable to impacts than those that are pristine. For example, it is ex- pected that climate change will have its greatest impact in areas where biodiversity has been already affected by other stresses. The density of roads and other linear development features in an area is the single best index of the cumulative impact of human activities on biodiversity. In B.C., the highest densities of roads are found in the four biogeoclimatic zones of highest conservation concern: Coastal Douglas-fir, Ponderosa Pine, Bunchgrass and Interior Douglas-fir.
21. Connectivity of ecosystems in British Columbia is being lost and, among other impacts, this will limit the ability of species to shift their distributions in response to climate change.
The degree of connectivity and the characteristics of linkages in natural landscapes vary, depending on topog- raphy, hydrology and natural disturbance regime. Human activities reduce connectivity and cause fragmen- tation through ecosystem conversion and degradation, disturbance, spread of alien species, direct mortality and environmental contamination. Linear features such as roads, hydro transmission corridors, seismic lines, pipelines and railways impact biodiversity in numerous ways, but particularly affect connectivity when they are built along valley bottoms, and when they cross streams, preventing the movement of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Besides limiting the ability of species to shift their distributions in response to climate change or habitat change, loss of connectivity also makes populations more vulnerable to extirpation as a result of chance events or the damaging effects of genetic drift and inbreeding.
Knowledge And Capacity
There is a substantial and ever-growing body of knowledge about biodiversity in British Columbia, which in- cludes scientific publications, species checklists, computer databases and individual expertise. However, there is also much that is not known. Capacity refers to the ability to fill the many knowledge gaps and integrate new and existing information.
22. Gaps in our knowledge of biodiversity in British Columbia create major challenges for effective conservation action.
Every species contributes, though not equally, to ecosystem function and resilience. However, approximately 92% of B.C.'s species (not including single-celled organisms) have not been assessed for their conservation status and the global ranks for many species that have been assessed are out of date. The ecology of most species and the distributions of all but a very few are poorly understood. Coarse-scale ecosystem classifications are complete in B.C., but information at a finer ecosystem scale is incomplete, as is ecosystem information from neighbouring jurisdictions. Trend monitoring is extremely limited and data on distribution and population size are lacking for many species. Information about impacts on biodiversity is generally incomplete or out of date.
23. The capacity to address some of the gaps in our knowledge of biodiversity in British Columbia is being impacted by the loss of already limited taxonomic expertise.
Thousands, if not tens of thousands, of species in B.C. have not been scientifically described or are not docu- mented as being present in the province. Species groups for which such information is particularly lacking include most of the invertebrates and non-vascular plants. This taxonomic knowledge gap is currently being exacerbated by an 'extinction of experience' as the scientists with the knowledge, skills and inclination to do the work required to fill the gaps are retiring and often are not being replaced.
Historic Species In B.C.
|Species Group||Scientific Name||Common Name|
|Mammals||Lepus townsendii||White-tailed jackrabbit|
|Non-Marine Molluscs||Deroceras hesperium||Evening fieldslug|
|Fisherola nuttalli||Shortface lanx|
|Fluminicola fuscus||Ashy pebblesnail|
|Fossaria vancouverensis||[no common name]|
|Musculium partumeium||Swamp fingernailclam|
|Planorbella columbiensis||Caribou rams-horn|
|Sphaerium occidentale||Herrington fingernailclam|
|Valvata humeralis||Glossy valvata|
|Valvata tricarinata||Threeridge valvata|
|Vertigo elatior||Tapered vertigo|
|Vascular Plants||Atriplex alaskensis||Alaskan orache|
|Epilobium pygmaeum||Smooth spike-primrose|
|Ericameria bloomeri||Rabbitbrush goldenweed|
|Eriogonum pauciflorum||Small-flower wild buckwheat|
|Gilia sinuata||Shy gilia|
|Leucanthemum arcticum||Arctic daisy|
|Parrya nudicaulis||Northern parrya|
|Pleuricospora fimbriolata||Fringed pinesap|
|Prenanthes racemosa||Glaucous rattlesnake-root|
|Ranunculus lobbii||Lobb's water-buttercup|
|Senecio hydrophilus||Alkali-marsh butterweed|
|Polypodium sibiricum||Siberian polypody|
|Elymus virginicus||Virginia wild rye|
|Piptatherum canadense||Canada ryegrass|
|Poa laxa||Mt. Washington bluegrass|
|Poa nervosa||Coastal bluegrass|
|Non-vascular Plants||Bryum tenuisetum||[no common name]|
Source: Prepared for this report with data from the B.C. Conservation Data Centre.
Note: Historic species are those for which there is no verified record of their presence in B.C. in the past 40 years. They are possibly extinct or extirpated.
Major Taxa Of Extant, Native, Free-Living Terrestrial And Freshwater Organisms In B.C., With Tabular Summary Of The Availability Of Up-To-Date Species Checklists, Handbooks Or Systematic Monographs, Computerized Geo-Referenced Distributional Databases, And Local (British Columbia) Taxonomic/Systematic Expertise.
Source: Prepared for this report.
Notes: Major classification follows Margulis, L. and K.V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms. An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth. Third Edition. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, NY. 520pp. The classification is detailed in some phyla to show the differing extent of knowledge in the larger taxa. Non-vascular plant phyla are marked with an asterisk (*).
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30 Turner, N.J., H.V. Kuhnlein and K.N. Egger. 1985. The cottonwood mushroom (Tricholoma populinum Lange): a food resource of the Interior Salish Indian Peoples of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 921-927.
31 Turner, N.J. and A. Davis. 1993. "When everything was scarce": the role of plants as famine foods in northwestern North America. Journal of Ethnobiology 13(2): 1-28.
32 Turner, N.J. 1995. Food Plants of Coastal First Peoples. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC and UBC Press, Vancouver, BC. 164pp.
33 Turner, N.J. 2006. Food Plants of Interior First Peoples. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC. 228pp.
35 Hunn, E.S., N.J. Turner and D.H. French. 1998. Ethnobiology and subsistence. Pp. 525-545 in D.E. Walker (ed.). Plateau, Vol. 12, Handbook of North American Indians. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 808pp.
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40 See endnote 24.
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45 See endnote 24.
46 D. Hay, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Retired), personal communication.
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49 See endnote 39.
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53 See endnote 39.
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58 Turner, N.J., I.J. Davidson-Hunt and M. O'Flaherty. 2003. Living on the edge: ecological and cultural edges as sources of diversity for social-ecological resilience. Human Ecology 31(3): 439-463.
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86 See endnote 62.
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89 See endnote 82.
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123 See endnote 103.
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211 See endnote 204.
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287 See endnote 78.
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289 See endnote 244.
290 See endnote 77.
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309 See endnote 257.
310 Avise, J.C. 2000. Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 447pp.
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312 See endnote 132.
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315 Hatter, I. 2006. Mountain caribou 2006 survey results, subpopulation trends and extinction risk. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. Draft for technical review. 19pp. Available at: http://ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/sarco/mc/files/MC_2006_Populaton_Survey.pdf .
316 See endnote 314.
317 Integrated Land Management Bureau. 2007. Mountain caribou recovery actions: backgrounder. B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Victoria, BC. 2pp. Available at: ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/sarco/mc/files/MC_Recovery_Implementation_Plan_Backgrounder_20071016.pdf.
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320 D. Irwin, University of British Columbia, personal communication.
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323 See endnote 244.
324 K. Hyatt, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, personal communication.
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327 P. Arcese, University of British Columbia, personal communication.
328 E. Elle, Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team, personal communication.
329 Adapted from Bunnell, F.L. In progress. The neglected majority.
330 Marshall, V.G. 2001. Sustainable forestry and soil fauna diversity. Ecoforestry Spring issue: 29-34.
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332 Marshall, V.G., H. Setala and J.A. Trofymow. 1998. Collembolan succession and stump decomposition in Douglas-fir. Northwest Science 72: 84-85.
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345 Andren H. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71(3): 355-366.
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347 McLellan, B.N. and D.M. Shackleton. 1988. Grizzly bears and resource-extraction industries: effects of roads on behaviour, habitat use and demography. Journal of Applied Ecology 25(2): 451-460.
348 S. Desjardins, University of British Columbia Okanagan, personal communication. Observed average dispersal distances for Behr's hairstreak (Satyrium behrii) in the Okanagan Valley were
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349 Fahrig, L. and G. Merriam. 1985. Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology 66(6): 1762-1768.
350 Keller, L.F. and D.M. Waller. 2002. Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17(5): 230-241.
351 Watters, G.T. 1996. Small dams as barriers to freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionoida) and their hosts. Biological Conservation 75: 79-85.
352 Weaver, J.L., P.C. Paquet and L.F. Ruggiero. 1996. Resilience and conservation of large carnivores in the Rocky Mountains. Conservation Biology 10(4): 964-976.
353 Preisler, H.K., A.A. Ager and M.J. Wisdom. 2006. Statistical methods for analysing responses of wildlife to human disturbance. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 164-172.
354 Seip, D.R., C.J. Johnson and G.S. Watts. 2006. Displacement of mountain caribou from winter habitat by snowmobiles. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 1539-1544.
355 Adapted from B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2007. Ecosystems: Trends in Number of Road Crossings of Streams. In Environmental Trends 2007. State of Environment Reporting Office, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soe/et07/06_ecosystems/stream_crossings.html.
356 Data source: National Forest Inventory Photo Database. Analysed by B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range, Forest Analysis and Inventory Branch, Victoria, BC.
357 Thompson, R. and C. Mount. 2007. Fish passage and culverts: why did the fish cross the road? Poster presented to B.C. Ministry of Environment Ecosystem Program Meeting, Sun Peaks, BC.
358 Apps, C. 1997. Identification of grizzly bear linkage zones along the Highway 3 corridor of southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta. Unpublished report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and World Wildlife Fund Canada and U.S.A.
359 Apps, C.D. 2001. Grizzly bear population linkage zones in the Sea to Sky Planning Area of southwestern British Columbia. Unpublished report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Surrey, BC.
360 Alexander, S. and J. Gailus. 2005. A GIS-Based Approach to Restoring Connectivity Across Banff's Trans-Canada Highway. Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative, Canmore, AB. Technical Report No. 4. 36pp. Available at: www.rockies.ca/downloads/COMPLETE TCH Report.pdf.
361 Apps, C.D., J.L. Weaver, P.C. Paquet, B. Bateman and B.N. McLellan. 2007. Carnivores in the southern Canadian Rockies: core areas and connectivity across the Crowsnest Highway. Wildlife Conservation Society Canada, Toronto, ON. Conservation Report No. 3. 109pp. Available at: www.wcscanada.org/media/file/crowsnest_web.pdf.
362 Clayoquot Sound Scientific Panel. 1995. Sustainable ecosystem management in Clayoquot Sound: planning and practices. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. Report 5. Available at: srmwww.gov.bc.ca/rmd/specialprojects/clayquot/archive/reports/Panel.htm.
363 Price, K. and D. McLennan. 2001. Hydroriparian Ecosystems of the North Coast. Background report prepared for the North Coast Land and Resource Management Plan. 90pp.
364 Howard, S. In Progress. An Application of the Hydroriparian Planning Guide in Six British Columbia Coastal Watersheds. Masters thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.
365 See endnote 363.
366 Wylynko, D. (ed.). 1999. Prairie wetlands and carbon sequestration: assessing sinks under the Kyoto Protocol. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB. 45pp. Available at: www.iisd.org/wetlands/wrkshp_summ.pdf.
367 See endnote 87.
368 Bunnell, F.L. and L.A. Dupuis. 1995. Riparian habitats in British Columbia: their nature and role. Pp. 7-21 in K.H. Morgan and M.A. Lashmar (eds.). Riparian habitat management and research. Special Publication of the Fraser River Action Plan, Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, B.C.
369 B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2006. Riparian Areas Regulation Implementation Guidebook. B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Biodiversity Branch, Victoria, BC. 87pp. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/habitat/fish_protection_act/riparian/documents/ImplementationGuidebook.pdf.
370 Poole, G.C. and C.H. Berman. 2001. An ecological perspective on in-stream temperature: natural heat dynamics and mechanisms on human-caused thermal degradation. Environmental Management 27: 787-802.
371 Naiman, R, H. Decamos and M.E. McClain. 2005. Riparia - Ecology, Conservation and Management of Streamside Communities. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA. 448pp.
372 See endnote 363.
373 See endnote 368.
374 Cannings, R.A., R.J. Cannings and S.G. Cannings. 1987. Birds of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC. 420pp. notes 245
375 Partners in Flight British Columbia and Yukon. 2003. Canada's Great Basin Landbird Conservation Plan, Version 1.0. Partners in Flight British Columbia and Yukon, Delta, BC. 100pp.
376 Abele, S.C., V.A. Saab and E.O. Garton. 2004. Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis): a technical conservation assessment. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Bozeman, MT. 50pp. Available: www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/lewisswoodpecker.pdf.
377 J. Hobbs, B.C. Ministry of Environment, personal communication.
378 See endnote 371.
379 Iverson, K. and C. Cadrin. 2003. Sensitive Ecosystems Inventory: Central Okanagan, 2000-2001. Vol. 1: Methodology, Ecological Descriptions, Results and Conservation Tools. Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Delta, BC. Technical Report Series No. 399.
380 See endnote 87.
381 See endnote 129.
382 See endnote 363.
383 Reese-Hansen, L. and E. Parkinson. 2006. Evaluating and Designing Fisheries Sensitive Watersheds (FSW): An Overview of B.C's New FSW Procedure. Draft report prepared for the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC.
384 See endnote 371.
385 Gilbertson, R.L. and L. Ryvarden. 1986. North American polypores, Vol. 1. Fungiflora, Oslo, Norway. 433pp.
386 Miller, R.M., D.R. Reinhardt and J.D. Jastrow. 1995. External hyphal production of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in pasture and tallgrass prairie communities. Oecologia 103: 17-23.
387 Pacific Forestry Centre. 2007. Beneficial fungi affected by harvesting regime and rotation. Information Forestry, April 2007. Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, BC.
388 Molles, M.C. 2002. Nutrient cycling and retention. Pp. 432-451 in Ecology, Concepts and Applications. McGraw-Hill. 640pp.
390 Holt, R. and T. Hatfield. 2007. Key Elements of Biodiversity in British Columbia: Some Examples From the Terrestrial and Freshwater Aquatic Realm. Biodiversity BC, Victoria, BC. 70pp. Available at: www.biodiversitybc.org.
391 Buchmann, S.L. and G.P. Nabhan. 1996. The Forgotten Pollinators. Island Press, Washington, DC. 312pp.
392 Losey, J.E. and M. Vaughan. 2006. The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. Bioscience 56: 311-323.
393 Larsen, T.H., N. Williams and C. Kremen. 2005. Extinction order and altered community structure rapidly disrupt ecosystem functioning. Ecology Letters 8: 538-547.
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395 E. Elle, Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team, personal communication.
396 Garry Oak Recovery Team. 2006. Research Colloquium 2006: Abstracts of Presentations. Available at: www.wnps.org/ecosystems/west_lowland_eco/documents/GOERTResearchColloquium2006Proceedings.pdf.
397 National Research Council. 2006. Status of Pollinators in North America. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 307pp.
398 Kremen, C.N., M. Williams and R.W. Thorp. 2002 Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99: 16812-16816.
399 Gates, J. 1995. Bees and pollination. Tree Fruit Leader 4(1). Available at: www.agf.gov.bc.ca/treefrt/newslett/bees_pollination.htm.
400 See endnote 398.
401 See endnote 397.
402 Terborgh, J., L. Lopez, P. Nuñez, M. Rao, G. Shahabuddin, G. Orihuela, M. Riveros, R. Ascanio, G.H. Adler, T.D. Lambert and L. Balbas. 2001. Ecological meltdown in predator-free forest fragments. Science 294: 1923-1926.
403 Stolzenburg, W. 2008. Where the wild things were: life, death and ecological wreckage in a land of vanishing predators. Bloomsbury USA, New York, NY. 240pp.
404 Laliberte, A.S. and W.J. Ripple. 2004. Range contractions of North American carnivores and ungulates. BioScience 54(2): 123-138.
405 Soulé, M.E., J.A. Estes, B. Miller and D.L. Honnold. 2005. Strongly interacting species: conservation policy, management, and ethics. Bioscience 55: 168-176.
406 Bergerud, A.T. and J.P. Elliott. 1998. Wolf predation in a multiple-ungulate system in northern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 1551-1569.
407 Bergerud, A.T. and J.P. Elliott. 1986. Dynamics of caribou and wolves in northern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64: 1515-1529.
408 Ripple, W.J., E.J. Larsen, R.A. Renkin and D.W. Smith. 2001. Trophic cascades among wolves, elk and aspen on Yellowstone National Park's northern range. Biological Conservation 102: 227-234.
409 Ripple, W.J. and R.L. Beschta. 2003. Wolf reintroduction, predation risk, and cottonwood recovery in Yellowstone National Park. Forest Ecology and Management 184: 299-313.
410 Berger, J., P.B. Stacey, L. Bellis and M.P. Johnson. 2001. A mammalian predator-prey imbalance: grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants. Ecological Applications 11: 947-960.
411 Wiens, J.A. 1989. Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology 3: 385-397.
412 D. Fraser, B.C. Ministry of Environment, personal communication.
413 Allombert, S., A.J. Gaston and J-L. Martin. 2005. A natural experiment on the impact of overabundant deer on songbird populations. Biological Conservation 126(1): 1-13.
414 Stockton, S.A., S. Allombert, A.J. Gaston and J-L. Martin. 2005. A natural experiment on the effects of high deer densities on the native flora of coastal temperate rain forests. Biological Conservation 126(1): 118-128. 246 taking nature's pulse: the status of biodiversity in british columbia
415 Hobbs, N.T. 1996. Modification of ecosystems by ungulates. Journal of Wildlife Management 60: 695-713.
416 Singer, F.J., L.C. Zeigenfuss and D.T. Barnett. 2000. Elk, beaver and the persistence of willows in national parks: response to Keigley (2000). Wildlife Society Bulletin 28: 451-453.
417 Singer, F.J., L.C. Zeigenfus, R.G. Cates and D.T. Barnett. 1998. Elk, multiple factors, and the persistence of willows in national parks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26: 419-428.
418 Forman, R.T.T. 2000. Estimate of the area affected ecologically by the road system in the United States. Conservation Biology 14: 31-35.
419 Wittmer, H.U., B.N. McLellan, R. Serrouya and C.D. Apps. 2007. Changes in landscape composition influence the decline of a threatened woodland caribou population. Journal of Animal Ecology 76:568-579.
420 B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2004. Accounts and Measures for Managing Identified Wildlife: Caribou - Version 2004. Biodiversity Branch, Victoria, BC. 29pp.
421 Mountain Caribou Technical Advisory Committee 2002. A Strategy for the Recovery of Mountain Caribou in British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. 73pp.
422 See endnote 419.
423 Dunster, J. and K. Dunster. 1996. Dictionary of Natural Resource Management. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC.
424 Polster, D.F. 1991. Natural Vegetation Succession and Sustainable Reclamation. Presentation to the Canadian Land Reclamation Association/B.C. Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation, Kamloops, B.C., June 24-28, 1991. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/nursery/fnabc/Proceedings/NatVegSuccsn.htm.
425 Pidwirny, M. and I.K. Barber. 2006. PhysicalGeography.net: Fundamentals (of Physical Geography) Online Textbook (2nd edition). University of British Columbia Okanagan. Available at: www.physicalgeography.net/about.html.
426 Whittle, C.A., L.C. Duchesne and T. Needham. 1997. The importance of buried seeds and vegetative propagation in the development of postfire plant communities. Environmental Review 5: 79-87.
427 Ryan, K.C. 2002. Dynamic interactions between forest structure and fire behavior in boreal ecosystems. Silva Fennica 36(1): 13-39.
428 Campbell, E.M. and J.A. Antos. 2003. Postfire succession in Pinus albicaulis - Abies lasiocarpa forests of southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 81: 383-397.
429 Flannigan, M.D. and B.M. Wotton. 2007. Assessing Past, Current, and Future Fire Occurrence and Fire Severity in British Columbia. Canadian Forest Service. Available at: feu.scf.rncan.gc.ca/research/climate_change/activites/nat_bc_e.htm.
430 See endnote 426.
431 See endnote 428.
432 Keane, R.E., G.J. Cary, I.D. Davies, M.D. Flannigan, R.H. Gardner, S. Lavorel, J.M. Lenihan, C. Li and T.S. Rupp. 2004. A classification of landscape fire succession models: spatial simulations of fire and vegetation dynamics. Ecological Modelling 179: 3-27.
433 Stoffels, D. 2000. Natural Disturbance and Large Scale Vegetation Succession Scenarios for the Columbia Forest District Columbia Mountains Caribou Project. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, Prince Rupert, BC. 23pp. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/LACH/pdf/land/lachm01.pdf.
434 Turner, J.S. and P.G. Krannitz. 2001. Conifer density increases in semi-desert habitats of British Columbia in the absence of fire. Northwest Science 75: 176-182.
435 See endnote 426.
436 See endnote 428.
437 DeLong, S.C. 1998. Natural disturbance rate and patch size distribution of forests in northern British Columbia: implications for forest management. Northwest Science 72: 35-48.
438 Gavin, D.G., L.B. Brubaker and K.P Lertzman. 2003. Holocene fire history of a coastal temperate rain forest based on soil charcoal radiocarbon dates. Ecology 84(1): 186-201.
439 Agee, J.K. 1994. Fire and weather disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Cascades. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-320. 52pp. Available at: www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/6225.
440 See endnote 433.
441 See endnote 429.
442 Gayton, D.V. 2003. British Columbia grasslands: monitoring vegetation change. FORREX-Forest Research Extension Partnership, Kamloops, BC. FORREX Series 7. Available at: www.forrex.org/publications/forrexseries/series.asp.
444 Parminter, J. (co-author and co-editor). 1995. Biodiversity Guidebook - Forest Practices Code of British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Forests and B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 99pp. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/tasb/legsregs/fpc/fpcguide/biodiv/biotoc.htm.
445 B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. 2004. Fire Effects on Rangeland. Fire Effects on Rangeland Factsheet Series No. 1. 4pp. Available at: www.agf.gov.bc.ca/range/publications/documents/fire1.pdf.
446 See endnote 426.
447 Keen, F.P. 1952. Insect enemies of western forests. United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication 273. 280pp.
449 See endnote 426.
450 Parks Canada. 2000. Yoho National Park of Canada Management Plan: Summary of the Environmental Assessment. Available at: www.pc.gc.ca/docs/v-g/yoho/plan1/sec11/page1_e.asp.
451 See endnote 427.
452 See endnote 450.
453 McCullough, D.G., R.A. Werner and D. Neumann. 1998. Fire and insects in northern and boreal forest ecosystems of North America. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 107-127. notes 247
454 Drever, C.R., G. Peterson, C. Messier, Y. Bergeron and M. Flannigan. 2006. Can forest management based on natural disturbances maintain ecological resilience? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36(9): 2285-2299.
455 Spies, T.A., M.A. Hemstrom, A. Youngblood and S. Hummel. 2006. Conserving old-growth forest diversity in disturbance-prone landscapes. Conservation Biology 20(2): 351-362.
456 Keane, R.E., G.J. Cary, I.D. Davies, M.D. Flannigan, R.H. Gardner, S. Lavorel, J.M. Lenihan, C. Li and T. S. Rupp. 2004. A classification of landscape fire succession models: spatial simulations of fire and vegetation dynamics. Ecological Modelling 17: 3-27.
457 See endnote 15.
458 Canadian Forest Service. 2007. Mountain Pine Beetle Biology. Available at: mpb.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/biology/biology_e.html.
459 See endnote 15.
460 Safranyik, L. and A.L. Carroll. 2006. The biology and epidemiology of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests. The mountain pine beetle: a synthesis of biology, management, and impacts on lodgepole pine. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. 304pp.
461 Unger, L. 1993. Mountain pine beetle. Forest Pest Leaflet. Canada-BC Partnership Agreement on Forest Resource Development: FRDA II. Fo 29-6/76-1993E.
462 E. Lofroth, B.C. Ministry of Environment, personal communication. To date, no research has been done to investigate this possible outcome.
463 Martin, K., A. Norris and M. Drever. 2006. Effects of bark beetle outbreaks on avian biodiversity in the British Columbia interior: implications for critical habitat management. B.C. Journal of Ecosystems and Management 7: 10-24. Available at: www.forrex.org/publications/jem/ISS38/vol7_no3_art2.pdf.
464 Anonymous. 2007. Beetle studies investigate effects on forest hydrology. Natural Resources Canada. Information Forestry. 3pp.
465 Bunnell, F.L., K.A. Squires and I. Houde. 2004. Evaluat ing the effects of large-scale salvage logging for moun tain pine beetle on terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2004-2. Available at: warehouse.pfc.forestry.ca/pfc/25154.pdf.
466 Boon, S. 2006. Determining the impact of MPB- killed forest and elevated harvesting on snow accumulation and the projected impacts on melt and peak flow. Forest Investment Account (FIA) Report, FIA Project M065006 (2005/06). Abstract available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/library/fia/html/FIA2006MRunp001.htm.
467 Forest Practices Board. 2007. The effect of mountain pine beetle attack and salvage harvesting on streamflows. Special Investigation. FPB/SIR/16. 27pp. Available at: www.fpb.gov.bc.ca/s_investigations.htm.
468 See endnote 463.
469 See endnote 15.
470 Wong, C., H. Sandmann and B. Dorner. 2004. Historical variability of natural disturbances in British Columbia: a literature review. FORREX-Forest Research Extension Partnership, Kamloops, BC. FORREX Series 12. Available at: www.forrex.org/publications/forrexseries/series.asp.
472 Huggard, D.J, W. Klenner and A. Vyse. 2000. Identifying and managing fauna sensitive to forest management: examples from the Sicamous Creek and Opax Mountain Silvicultural Systems Sites. Pp. 235-239 in L.M. Darling (ed). Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., Feb. 15-19, 1999. Volume 1. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC. 490pp.
473 Nordyke, K.A. and S.W. Buskirk. 1991. Southern red-backed vole, Clethrionomys gapperi, populations in relation to stand succession and old-growth character in the central Rocky Mountains. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105: 330-34.
474 Maser, C. and Z. Maser. 1988. Mycophagy of red-backed voles Clethrionomys californicus and Clethrionomys gapperi. Great Basin Naturalist. 48(2): 269-273.
475 Holt, R. and T. Hatfield. 2007. Key Elements of Biodiversity in British Columbia: Some Examples From the Terrestrial and Freshwater Aquatic Realm. Biodiversity BC, Victoria, BC. 70pp. Available at: www.biodiversitybc.org.
476 Hayes, J.P. and S.P. Cross. 1987. Characteristics of logs used by western red-backed voles, Clethrionomys californicus, and deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus. Canadian Field- Naturalist 101: 543-46.
477 Clarkson, D.A. and L.S. Mills. 1994. Hypogeous sporocarps in forest remnants and clearcuts in southwest Oregon. Northwest Science 68:259-65.
479 See endnote 390.
480 Fenger, M., T. Manning, J. Cooper, S. Guy and P. Bradford. 2006. Wildlife and Trees in British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, AB. 336pp.
482 Martin, K. and J.M. Eadie. 1999. Nest webs: a community wide approach to the management and conservation of cavity nesting birds. Forest Ecology and Management 115: 243-257.
483 See endnote 480.
485 Simard, S. and A. Vyse. 2006. Trade-offs between competition and facilitation: a case study of vegetation management in the interior cedar- hemlock forests of southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36(10): 2486-2496.
486 Sachs, D.L. 1996. Simulation of the growth of mixed stands of Douglas-fir and paper birch using the FORECAST model. Pp. 152-158 in P. Comeau and K.D. Thomas (eds.). Silviculture of Temperate and Boreal Broadleaved-conifer Mixtures. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, Victoria, BC. Land Management Handbook 36. 163pp. 248 taking nature's pulse: the status of biodiversity in british columbia
487 Gerlach, J.P., P.B. Reich, K. Puettmann and T. Baker. 1997. Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from Armillaria root rot. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 1509-1512.
488 Arsenault, A. and T. Goward. 1999. The drip
487 Gerlach, J.P., P.B. Reich, K. Puettmann and T. Baker. 1997. Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from Armillaria root rot. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 1509-1512.
488 Arsenault, A. and T. Goward. 1999. The drip zone effect: new insights into the distribution of rare lichens. Pp. 767-768 in L.M. Darling (ed.). Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., Feb. 15-19, 1999. Volume 2. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC. 520pp.
489 S. Simard, University of British Columbia, personal communication.
490 See endnote 390.
491 Holt, R.F. 2001. A Strategic Ecological Restoration Assessment (SERA) in the Forest Regions of British Columbia. Summary: Ecological Restoration Priorities by Region. Unpublished report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Environment, Habitat Branch, Victoria, BC.
492 Holt, R.F., G. Utzig, M. Carver and J. Booth. 2003. Biodiversity Conservation in BC: An Assessment of Threats and Gaps. Unpublished report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Environment, Biodiversity Branch, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.veridianecological.ca/publications/Veridian Bio Gaps_Report_final.pdf.
493 B.C. Conservation Data Centre. 2007. BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/atrisk/toolintro.html.
494 See endnote 129.
495 See endnote 390.
496 Lavkulich, L.M. and K.W.G. Valentine. 2007. The Soil Landscapes of British Columbia: Soil And Soil Processes. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soils/landscape/2.2soil.html.
497 Millar, C.E., L.M. Turk and H.D. Foth. 1965. Fundamentals of Soil Science, 4th edition. Wiley, New York, NY. 491pp.
498 B.C. Ministry of Forests. 2002. Stand Level Components of Biodiversity: Module 3D - Forest Floor. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/training/00001/module03/forest-floor.htm.
499 Alberta Environment. 2008. Land contamination. Available at: www.environment.alberta.ca/1015.html.
500 Atwood, L.B. and P.G. Krannitz. 1999. Effect of the microbiotic crust of the antelope brush (Purshia tridentata) shrub-steppe on soil moisture. Pp. 809-812 in L.M. Darling (ed.). Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., Feb. 15-19, 1999. Volume 2. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC. 520pp.
501 Williston, P. 2000. A lust for crust: successional microbiotic crusts in British Columbia. Botanical Electronic News 251.
502 See endnote 426.
503 Harmon, M.E., J.F. Franklin, F.J. Swanson, P. Sollins, S.V. Gregory, J.D. Lattin, N.H. Anderson, S.P. Cline, N.G. Aumen, J.R. Sedell, G.W. Lienkaemper, K. Cromack Jr. and K.W. Cummins. 1986. Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research 15: 133-302.
504 B.C. Ministry of Forests. No date. Module 3: Stand Level Components of Biodiversity. Module 3C Coarse Woody Debris. Available on the internet at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/training/00001/module03/cwd.htm. Access date: October 10, 2007.
505 Caza, C.L. 1993. Woody debris in the forests of B.C.: a review of the literature and current research. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC. Land Management Report 78. 112pp.
506 Maser, C. and J.R. Sedell (eds.). 1994. From the forest to the sea: the ecology of wood in streams, rivers, estuaries, and oceans. St. Lucie Press, FL.
507 B.C. Ministry of Forests. 2007. State of Cutblocks: Resource Stewardship Monitoring for Stand- level Biodiversity 2005. Forest Practices Branch, Victoria, BC. FREP Report 7. 14pp. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/frep/site_files/reports/FREP_Report_07.pdf.
508 Densmore, N., J. Parminter and V. Stevens. 2004. Coarse woody debris: inventory, decay modelling, and management implications in three biogeoclimatic zones. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 5(2): 14-29. Available at: www.forrex.org/publications/jem/jem.asp?issue=26.
509 Durst, J.D. and J. Ferguson. 2000. Large woody debris: an annotated bibliography. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Habitat and Restoration Division. 60pp. Available at: forestry. alaska.gov/pdfs/3Lit-LWD8-11.pdf.
510 Deil, U. 2005. A review on habitats, plant traits and vegetation of ephemeral wetlands - a global perspective. Phytocoenologia 35(2-3): 533-705.
511 Meyer, J.L, L.A. Kaplan, D. Newbold, D.L. Strayer, C.J. Woltemade, J.B. Zedler, R. Beilfuss, Q. Carpenter, R. Semlitsch, M.C. Watzin and P.H. Zedler. 2003. Where Rivers Are Born: The Scientific Imperative for Defending Small Streams and Wetlands. Sierra Club and American Rivers. 26pp. Available at: www.americanrivers.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AR7_Publications.
512 Naugle, D.E., R.R. Johnson, M.E. Estey and K.F. Higgins. 2000. A landscape approach to conserving wetland bird habitat in the prairie pothole region of eastern South Dakota. Wetlands 20: 588-604.
513 Maret, T.J., J.D. Snyder and J.P. Collins. 2006. Altered drying regime controls distribution of endangered salamanders and introduced predators. Biological Conservation 127: 129-138.
514 Batzer, D.P. and S.A. Wissinger. 1996. Ecology of insect communities in nontidal wetlands. Annual Review of Entomology 41: 75-100.
515 Brock, M.A., D.L. Nielsen, D.L., R.L., Shiel, J.D. Green and J.D. Langley. 2003. Drought and aquatic community resilience: the role of eggs and seeds in sediments of temporary wetlands. Freshwater Biology 48: 1207-1218.
516 B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. 1993. State of the Environment Report for British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and Environment Canada, Communications, Pacific and Yukon Region, North Vancouver, BC. 127pp. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soe/.
517 Ibid. in three biogeoclimatic zones. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 5(2): 14-29. Available at: www.forrex.org/publications/jem/jem.asp?issue=26.
518 Boyle, C.A., L. Lavkulich, H. Schreier and E. Kiss. 1997. Changes in land cover and subsequent effects on Lower Fraser Basin ecosystems from 1827 to 1990. Environmental Management 21(2): 185-196.
519 Moore, K. and K. Roger. 2003. Urban and Agricultural Encroachment onto Fraser Lowland Wetlands - 1989 to 1999. In Proceedings of the
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520 Prentice, A.C. and W.S. Boyd. 1988. Intertidal and Adjacent Upland Habitat in Estuaries Located on the East Coast of Vancouver Island: A Pilot Assessment of Their Historical Changes. Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Delta, BC. Technical Report Series No. 38.
521 Axys Environmental Consulting Ltd. 2005. Redigitizing of Sensitive Ecosystems Inventory Polygons to Exclude Disturbance Areas: A Summary Report. Prepared for Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Delta, BC.
522 National Wetlands Working Group. 1988. Wetlands of Canada. Environment Canada, Sustainable Development Branch, Ottawa, ON and Polyscience Publications Inc., Montreal, PQ. Ecological Land Classification Series No. 24. 452pp.
523 See endnote 192.
524 Wilson, S.J. and R.J. Hebda. 2008. Mitigating and adapting to climate change through the conservation of nature. The Land Trust Alliance of British Columbia, Saltspring Island, BC. 58pp.
525 Mackenzie, W.H. and J.R. Moran. 2004. Wetlands of B.C.: a guide to identification. Land Management Handbook 5. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, Victoria, BC. 297pp. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Lmh/Lmh52.htm.
527 Howie, S. 2002. A look at Burns Bog. Davidsonia 13(4): 76-94.
528 Hebda, R.J., K. Gustavson, K. Golinski and A.M. Calder. 2000. Burns Bog Ecosystem Review. Synthesis Report for Burns Bog, Fraser River Delta, South-western British Columbia, Canada. Environmental Assessment Office, Victoria, BC. 271pp.
529 Rydin, H. and J.K. Jeglum. 2006. The Biology of Peatlands. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. 360pp.
530 Andrus, R.E. 1986. Some aspects of Sphagnum ecology. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 416-426.
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532 Cannings, S.G. and R.A. Cannings. 1994. The Odonata of the northern Cordilleran peatlands of North America. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 169: 89-110.
533 See endnote 528.
534 See endnote 527.
535 Smith, C., J. Morissette, S. Forest, D. Falk and E. Butterworth. 2007. Synthesis of Technical Information on Forest Wetlands in Canada. National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC. Technical Bulletin No. 938.
536 Rochefort, L. 2000. Sphagnum: a keystone genus in habitat restoration. Bryologist 103(3): 503-508.
537 Andrus, R.E. 1986. Some aspects of Sphagnum ecology. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 416-426.
538 See endnote 390.
539 Keddy, P.A. and A.A. Reznicek. 1986. Great Lakes vegetation dynamics: the role of fluctuating water levels and buried seeds. Journal of Great Lakes Research 12: 25-36.
540 Turner, M.A., D.B. Huebert, D.L. Findlay, L.L. Hendzel, W.A. Jansen, R.A. Bodaly, L.M. Armstrong and S.E.M. Kasian. 2005. Divergent impacts of experimental lake-level draw down on planktonic and benthic plant communities in a boreal forest lake. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 991-1003.
541 Fraley, J. and J. Decker-Hess. 2006. Effects of stream and lake regulation on reproductive success of kokanee in the Flathead River system, Montana, U.S.A. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 1(3): 257-265.
542 Andrusak, H., S. Matthews, I. McGregor, K. Ashley, R. Rae, A. Wilson, J. Webster, G. Andrusak, L. Vidmanic, J. Stockner, D. Sebastian, G. Scholten, P. Woodruff, , G. Wilson, , B. Jantz, D. Bennett, H. Wright, R. Withler and S. Harris. 2005. Okanagan Lake Action Plan Year
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543 Hecky, R.E. and R.H. Hesslein. 1995. Contributions of benthic algae to lake food webs as revealed by stable isotope analysis. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 14: 631-653.
544 Rorslett, B. 1989. An integrated approach to hydropower impact assessment. Hydrobiologia 175: 65-82
545 Hellsten, S., M. Marttunen, R. Palomaki, J. Riihimaki and E.A. Alasaarela. 1996. Towards an ecologically based regulation practice in Finnish hydroelectric lakes. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 12: 535-545.
546 Paller, M.H. 1997. Recovery of a reservoir fish community from drawdown related impacts. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17: 726-733.
547 See endnote 540.
548 Magee, T.K. and M.E. Kentula. 2005. Response of wetland plant species to hydrologic conditions. Wetlands Ecology and Management 13: 163-181.
549 See endnote 540.
550 Wilcox, D.A., and J.E. Meeker. 1991. Disturbance effects on aquatic vegetation in regulated and unregulated lakes in northern Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:1542-1551.
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555 See endnote 546.
556 See endnote 540.
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559 See endnote 557.
560 See endnote 558.
561 T. Johnson, B.C. Ministry of Environment, personal communication.
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565 Bradford, M.J., G.C. Taylor and J.A. Allan. 1997. Empirical review of coho salmon smolt abundance and the prediction of smolt production at the regional level. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126: 49-64.
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567 Bradford, M.J., J.A. Grout and S. Moodie. 2001. Ecology of juvenile chinook salmon in a small non-natal stream of the Yukon River drainage and the role of ice conditions on their distribution and survival. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 2043-2054.
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569 See endnote 566.
570 Lorenz, J.M. and J.H. Eiler. 1989. Spawning habitat and redd characteristics of sockeye salmon in the glacial Taku River, British Columbia and Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 118: 495-502.
571 Leman, V.N. 1993. Spawning sites of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta: microhydrological regime and viability of progeny in redds (Kamchatka River basin). Journal of Ichthyology 33: 104-117.
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574 See endnote 568.
575 Geist, D.R. 2000. Hyporheic discharge of river water into fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 1647-1656.
576 Boulton, A.J., S. Findlay, P. Marmonier, E.H. Stanley and H.M. Valett. 1998. The functional significance of the hyporheic zone in streams and rivers. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 59-81.
577 Stanford, J.A. and J.V. Ward. 1988. The hyporheic habitat of river ecosystems. Nature 335: 64-66.
578 See endnote 576.
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585 See endnote 562.
586 Stanford, J.A. and J.V. Ward. 1993. An ecosystem perspective of alluvial rivers: connectivity and the hyporheic corridor. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 48-60.
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591 Booth, D.B., D. Hartley and R. Jackson. 2002. Forest cover, impervious-surface area, and the mitigation of stormwater impacts. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38: 835-845.
592 Wang, L., J. Lyons and P. Kanehl. 2002. Impacts of urbanization on stream habitat and fish across multiple spatial scales. Environmental Management 28: 255-266.
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594 See endnote 584.
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598 Wilkinson, C.E., M.H. Hocking and T.E. Reimchen. 2005. Uptake of salmon-derived nitrogen by mosses and liverworts in Coastal British Columbia. Oikos 108: 85-98.
599 Wipfli, M.S., J.P. Hudson and J.P. Caouette. 1998. Influence of salmon carcasses on stream productivity: response of biofilm and benthic macroinvertebrates in southeastern Alaska, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 1503-1511.
600 Wipfli, M.S., J.P. Hudson, J.P. Caouette, and D.T. Chaloner. 2003. Marine subsidies in freshwater ecosystems: salmon carcasses increase the growth rates of stream-resident salmonids. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132: 371-381.
601 Moore, J.W. and D.E. Schindler. 2004. Nutrient export from freshwater ecosystems by anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61: 1582-1589.
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603 B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2006. Fisheries. Technical paper for British Columbia's Coastal Environment: 2006. State of Environment Reporting Office, Victoria, BC. 57pp. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soe/bcce/04_fisheries/technical_paper/fisheries.pdf.
604 Slaney, T.L., K.D. Hyatt, T.G. Northcote and R.J. Fielden. 1996. Status of anadromous salmon and trout in British Columbia and Yukon. Fisheries 21: 20-35.
605 Larkin, G.A. and P.A. Slaney. 1997. Implications of trends in marine-derived nutrient influx to south coastal British Columbia salmonid production. Fisheries 22: 16-24.
606 Himmer, S. and J. Boulanger. 2003. Trends in grizzly bears utilizing salmon streams in the Owikeno Lake system: 1998-2002. Report prepared for Western Forest Products and the B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, William's Lake, BC. 32pp.
607 Austin, M. 2000. B.C. bears in trouble. International Bear News. 9(2): 13.
608 See endnote 606.
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610 B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2006. Fisheries. Technical paper for British Columbia's Coastal Environment: 2006. State of Environment Reporting Office, Victoria, BC. 57pp. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soe/bcce/04_fisheries/technical_paper/fisheries.pdf.
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615 Fayram, A.H. and T.H. Sibley. 2000. Impact of predation by smallmouth bass on sockeye salmon in Lake Washington, Washington. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20: 81-89.
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619 Nelitz, M., K. Wieckowski, D. Pickard, K. Pawley and D.R. Marmorek. 2007. Helping Pacific Salmon Survive the Impact of Climate Change on Freshwater Habitats. Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council, Vancouver, BC. 122pp.
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621 Irvine, J.R. 2002. COSEWIC status report on the coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Interior Fraser population) in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Interior Fraser population) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. 34pp.
622 COSEWIC. 2003. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Cultus population) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. 57pp.
623 COSEWIC. 2003. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Sakinaw population) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. 35pp.
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625 See endnote 596.
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639 See endnote 390.
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654 Ibid. notes 253
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657 See endnote 655.
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664 COSEWIC. 2007. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the sea otter Enhydra lutris in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. 36pp.
665 See endnote 660.
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672 See endnote 645.
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676 See endnote 238.
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679 See endnote 645.
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682 See endnote 680.
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690 See endnote 687.
691 See endnote 684.
692 See endnote 688.
693 See endnote 689.
695 See endnote 687.
696 See endnote 685.
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698 See endnote 525.
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711 See endnote 701.
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714 B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2006. Ecosystems at Risk: Estuaries in British Columbia. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/documents/Estuaries06_20.pdf.
715 Hagen, M.E. 1984. British Columbia Estuarine Information Catalogue. Vol. 1 - Vancouver Island - East. Lands Directorate, Environnent Canada, Vancouver BC. 146pp.
716 Hagen, M.E. 1984. British Columbia Estuarine Information Catalogue. Vol. 2 - Lower Mainland - Sunshine Coast. Lands Directorate, Environnent Canada, Vancouver BC. 215pp.
717 Remington, D. 1993. Coastal Wetlands Habitat Assessment and Classification for Northwestern B.C. Pacific Estuary Conservation Program. Unpublished report.
718 MacKenzie, W., D. Remington and J. Shaw. 2000. Estuaries on the North Coast of British Columbia: A Reconnaissance Survey of Selected Sites. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. Unpublished Report.
719 Hunter, R.A., K.R. Summers and R.G. Davies. 1985. A Rating Scheme for British Columbia's Major Coastal Wetlands. Unpublished report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Environment. 29pp.
720 Ryder, J.L., J.K. Kenyon, D. Buffett, K. Moore, M. Ceh and K. Stipec. 2007. An Integrated Biophysical Assessment of Estuarine Habitats in British Columbia to Assist Regional Conservation Planning. Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Delta, BC. Technical Report Series No. 476. 141pp.
721 Howes. D., M. Morris and M. Zacharias. 1999. British Columbia Estuary Mapping System. Version 1.0. Resources Inventory Committee, B.C. Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Victoria, BC. 62pp. Available at: ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/risc/pubs/coastal/estuary/index.htm.
722 Holt, R. 2007. Special Elements of Biodiversity in British Columbia. Biodiversity BC, Victoria, BC. 30pp. Available at: www.biodiversitybc.org.
723 IBA Canada. 2004. Important Bird Areas of Canada. Available at: www.ibacanada.com/.
724 R. Hebda, Royal British Columbia Museum, personal communication.
725 IBA Canada. 2003. Scott Islands Executive Summary. Available at: www.ibacanada.com/cpm_scott03.html.
726 Ban, S. and A.W. Trites. 2007. Quantification of terrestrial haul-out and rookery characteristics of Steller sea lions. Marine Mammal Science 23: 496-507.
727 COSEWIC. 2003. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Steller sea lion Eumatopia jubatus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. www.sararegistry.gc.ca/virtual_sara/files/cosewic/sr_steller_sea_lion_e.pdf. notes 255
728 B.C. Conservation Data Centre. 2008. Occurrences For Steller Sea Lion Rookeries. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 5pp.
729 See endnote 727.
730 D. Biffard, B.C. Ministry of Environment, personal communication.
731 See endnote 727.
732 See endnote 596.
734 B. Holtby, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, personal communication.
735 K. Hyatt, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, personal communication.
736 B. Holtby, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, personal communication.
737 Harper, D., P. Slaney and G. Wilson. 2007. Lower Cheakamus River Habitat Compensation: Pilot Reach Bank-secured Large Wood Restoration. Report prepared for the Canadian National Railway Company. Report No. HR-CHEAK-BCK- CN-2007. 25pp. Available at: www.bccanoe.com/newsflash/Cheakamus_2007_LWD_restoration_Backgrounder_from_BCCF.pdf.
738 Arsenault, A. and T. Goward. 2000. Ecological characteristics of inland rain forests. Pp. 437-439 in L.M. Darling (ed.). Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., Feb. 15-19, 1999. Volume 1. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC. 490pp.
739 Utzig, G. 2005. Inland temperate rainforest region. Map prepared for ForestEthics, Wildsight and Northwest Ecosystem Alliance. Available at: forestethics.org/img/original/intrain_final.jpg.
740 See endnote 738.
741 See endnote 438.
742 Brown, K.J. and R.J. Hebda. 2002. Origin, development, and dynamics of coastal temperate conifer rainforests of southern Vancouver Island, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 353-372.
743 Holt, R.F. and D.J. MacKillop. 2006. Endangered Forests of the Inland Temperate Rainforest: An Inventory of Old-growth in Trout Lake and the Incomappleux. Prepared for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program and ForestEthics. 47pp. Available at: www.fwcp.ca/version2/reports/pdfs/Endangered_Forests_of_the_Inland_Temperate_Rainforest.pdf.
744 B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2006. Register of Big Trees of British Columbia. Conservation Data Centre, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/bigtree/docs/BigTreeRegistry.pdf.
745 Winchester, N. 1998. Severing the web: changing biodiversity in converted northern temperate ancient coastal rainforests. Northwest Science
72 (Special Issue No. 2): 124-126.
746 Lindo, Z. and N.N. Winchester. 2006. A comparison of microarthropod assemblages with emphasis on oribatid mites in canopy suspended soils and forest floors associated with ancient western redcedar trees. Pedobiologia 15(1): 31-41.
747 Arsenault, A. and T. Goward. 1998. Patterns of lichen diversity and distribution in old and young forests of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock Zone of British Columbia. Pp. 21-22 in Ecosystem Dynamics and Silviculture Systems in Interior Wet-belt ESSF and ICH Forests: Workshop Proceedings, June 10-12, 1997. University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/RSI/FSP/Kamloops/Misc020.pdf.
748 Arsenault, A. and T. Goward. 2000. Inland old- growth rain forests: Safe havens for rare lichens. Pp. 759-766 in L.M. Darling (ed.). Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., Feb. 15-19, 1999. Volume 2. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC. 520pp.
749 Smith, W. and P. Lee (eds.). 2000. Canada's Forests at a Crossroads: An Assessment in the Year 2000. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. 114pp.
750 B.C. Parks. Kitlope Heritage Conservancy Protected Area. No date. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/explore/parkpgs/kitlope.html.
751 See endnote 749.
752 Holt, R.F. 2004. Environmental Conditions Report for the Haida Gwaii /Queen Charlotte Islands Land Use Plan. Integrated Land Management Bureau, Victoria, BC. Available at: http://ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/slrp/lrmp/nanaimo/qci/news/envconditionreport.html.
753 Holt, R.F. and G. Sutherland. 2003. Environmental Risk Assessment: Base Case: Coarse Filter Biodiversity - Final Report. Prepared for North Coast Land and Resources Management Plan, Integrated Land Management Bureau, Victoria, BC. 44pp. Available at: http://ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/citbc/b-CoFiltFull-Holt-Mar03.pdf .
754 Holt, R.F. and A. MacKinnon. 2007. Central Coast LUP Environmental Risk Assessment: Ecosystem Protection, Condition and Trends. Unpublished report prepared for Integrated Land Management Bureau, Victoria, BC.
755 See endnote 748.
756 See endnote 405.
757 Morrison, J.C., W. Sechrest, E. Dinerstein, D.S. Wilcove and J.F. Lamoreux. 2007. Persistence of large mammal faunas as indicators of global human impacts. Journal of Mammalogy 88(6): 1363-1380.
760 See endnote 404.
761 McTaggart Cowan, I. 1987. Science and the Conservation of Wildlife in British Columbia. Pp. 85-106 in A. Murray (ed.). Our Wildlife Heritage: 100 Years of Wildlife Management. The Centennial Wildlife Society of British Columbia, Victoria, BC. 192pp.
762 See endnote 757.
763 See endnote 528.
764 Rydin, H. and J. Jeglum. 2006. The Biology of Peatlands. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK and New York, NY.
765 R. Hebda, Royal British Columbia Museum, personal communication. 256 taking nature's pulse: the status of biodiversity in british columbia
766 See endnote 284.
767 See endnote 764.
768 Whitfield, P.H., R.J. Hebda, J.K. Jeglum and S.A. Howie. 2006. Restoring the natural hydrology of Burns Bog, Delta, British Columbia: the key to the bog's ecological recovery. Pp. 58-70 in A. Chantler (ed.). Water Under Pressure. Proceedings of the Canadian Water Resources Association B.C. Branch Conference, October 25-27, 2006, Vancouver, BC.
769 B.C. Ministry of Forests. 2003. Karst management handbook for British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC. 69pp. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/publications/00189/Karst-Mgmt-Handbook-web.pdf.
770 B.C. Ministry of Forests. 2002. Karst Impact Analysis - Provincial Analysis. Unpublished report prepared for the Chief Forester.
771 See endnote 769.
772 Shaw, P. and M. Davis. 2000. Invertebrates from caves on Vancouver Island. Pp. 121-124 in L.M. Darling (ed.). Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., Feb. 15-19, 1999. Volume 1. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC. 490pp.
773 Houde, I., S. Leech, F.L. Bunnell, T. Spribille and C. Björk. 2007. Old forest remnants contribute to sustaining biodiversity: the case of the Albert River Valley. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 8(3): 43-52.
774 Lewis T. and A. Inselberg. 2001. Survey of limestone species in the Holberg Operation. Prepared for Western Forest Products, Campbell River Office. Campbell River, BC.
775 Harding, K.A. and D.C. Ford. 1993. Impacts of primary deforestation upon limestone slopes in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Environmental Geology 21: 137-143.
776 Baichtal, J.F. 1995. Evolution of Karst Management on the Ketchikan Area of the Tongass National forest: Development of an Ecologically Sound Approach. Pp. 190-202 in Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium, Carlsbad, NM.
777 Davis, M. 1995. Weymer/Green Creeks Cave/Karst Inventory. Unpublished report prepared by Island Karst Research for Pacific Forests Products Ltd., Duncan, BC.
778 Gascoyne, M., D.C. Ford and H.P. Schwarz. 1981. Late Pleistocene chronology and paleoclimate of Vancouver Island determined from cave deposits. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18(11): 1643-1652
779 Lean, C.B., A.J. Latham and J. Shaw. 1995. Palaeosecular variation from a Vancouver- Island stalagmite and comparison with contemporary North American records. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity 47(1): 71-87.
780 Forest Practices Board. 2007. Protecting karst in coastal B.C. Special Report FPB/SR/31. 10pp. Available at: www.fpb.gov.bc.ca/special/reports/SR31/Protecting_Karst_in_Coastal_BC.pdf.
781 See endnote 770.
782 See endnote 780.
783 Lee, J.S. and J.D. Ackerman. 2000. Freshwater Molluscs at Risk in British Columbia: Three Examples of "Risk". Pp. 67-73 in L.M. Darling (ed.). Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., Feb. 15-19, 1999. Volume 1. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC. 490pp.
784 Stahl. K. and R.D. Moore. 2006. Influence of basin glacier coverage on trends in summer streamflow in British Columbia, Canada. Geophysical Research Abstracts 8: 1.
785 S. Bertram, Consultant, personal communication. See map at: http://tree. discovery.mala.bc.ca/student_pages/2005_fall/glacial_watersheds/bc_parks.html.
786 B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2002. Climate Change and Freshwater Ecosystems - Glaciers. In Indicators of Climate Change for British Columbia 2002. Environment Protection Division, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/air/climate/indicat/glacier_id1.html.
787 Parks Canada. 2003. Time for Nature: Reservoirs of the Rockies. Available at: www.pc.gc.ca/canada/pn-tfn/itm2-/2003/au/index_e.asp.
788 See endnote 786.
789 See endnote 784.
790 Kruckeberg, A.R. 1969. Soil diversity and the distribution of plants, with examples from western North America. Madrono 20: 129-154. Cited in Ogilvie, R.T. 1998. Vascular Plants. In G.G.E. Scudder and I.M. Smith (eds.). Assessment of Species Diversity in the Montane Cordillera Ecozone. Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network, Burlington, ON. Available at: www.naturewatch.ca/eman/reports/publications/99_montane/intro.html.
791 Overmann, J., K.J. Hall, T.G. Northcote and J.T. Beatty. 1999. Grazing of the copepod Diaptomus connexus on purple sulphur bacteria in a meromictic salt lake. Environmental Microbiology 1: 213-221.
792 Bahls, P.F. 1992. The status of fish populations and management of high mountain lakes in Western United States. Northwest Science 66: 183-193.
793 McGarvie Hirner, J.L. 1998. Relationship between trout stocking and amphibians in British Columbia's southern interior lakes. University of Victoria, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Victoria, BC. Report No. 406.
794 Rae, R. and D. Biffard. 2003. Are BC's Protected Areas Representing Freshwater Ecosystems? 5th International Science and Management of Protected Areas Association Conference. Available at: www.sampaa.org/PDF/ch7/7.1.pdf.
795 McPhail, J.D. and R. Carveth. 1993. A Foundation for Conservation: The Nature and Origin of the Freshwater Fish Fauna of British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Fisheries Branch, Victoria, BC. 39pp. Available at: wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/wld/documents/techpub/rn323.pdf.
796 Laval, B., S.L. Cady, J.C. Pollack, C.P. McKay, J.S. Bird, J. P. Grotzinger, D.C. Ford and H.R. Bohm. 2000. Modern freshwater microbialite analogues for ancient dendritic reef structures. Nature 407: 626-629.
798 Ferris, F.G., J.B. Thompson and T.J. Beveridge. 1997. Modern freshwater microbialites from Kelly Lake, British Columbia, Canada. Palaios 12: 213-219. notes 257
799 Pike, W., D.S.S. Lim, B. Laval, G. Slater, D. Reid and C.P. McKay. 2008. Kelly Lake microbialites, another discovery in the Pavilion Lake region. Oral presentation at the Astrobiology Science Conference 2008, Santa Clara, CA, April 15-17, 2008.
800 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. 85pp. Available at: www.maweb.org/documents/document.354.aspx.pdf.
801 United Nations Environment Programme. 2001. Global biodiversity outlook. United Nations. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Available at: www.cbd.int/gbo1/gbo-pdf.shtml.
802 Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2007. Canadian Species at Risk. Available at: www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct0/rpt/dsp_booklet_e.htm.
803 World Conservation Union (IUCN). 2006. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: IUCN- CMP: The Conservation Measures Partnership. Available at: www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sis/classification.htm.
804 Long, G. 2007. Biodiversity Safety Net Gap Analysis Biodiversity BC, Victoria, BC. 66pp. Available at: www.biodiversitybc.org.
805 Holt, R.F., G. Utzig, M. Carver, and J. Booth. 2003. Biodiversity Conservation in B.C. : An Assessment of Threats and Gaps. Veridian Ecological Consulting. South Slocan, B.C. pp. 55-56.
806 See endnote 145.
807 Didham, R.K., J.M. Tylianakis, M.A. Hutchison, R.M. Ewers and N.J. Gemmell. 2005. Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:470-474.
808 MacDougall, A.S. and R. Turkington. 2005. Are invasive species the drivers or passengers of change in degraded ecosystems? Ecology 86:42-55.
809 Gayton, D. 2004. Native and non-native plant species in grazed grasslands of British Columbia's southern interior. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 5(1): 51-59. Available at: www.forrex.org/jem/2004/vol5/no1/art6.pdf.
810 See endnote 159.
812 Venter, O., N.N. Brodeur, L. Nemiroff, B. Belland, I.J. Dolinsek and J.W.A. Grant. 2006. Threats to endangered species in Canada. Bioscience 56: 903-910.
813 Stein, B.A., L.S. Kutner and J.S. Adams (eds.). 2000. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. 399pp.
814 Noss, R.F. and R.L. Peters. 1995. Endangered Ecosystems: A Status Report on America's Vanishing Habitat and Wildlife. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington DC.
815 Baillie, J.E.M., C. Hilton-Taylor and S.N. Stuart (eds.). 2004. A Global Species Assessment. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.. Available at: www.iucn.org/bookstore/HTML-books/Red List 2004/completed/cover.html.
816 Vitousek, P.M., H.J.A. Mooney, J. Lubchneco and J.M. Melillo. 1977. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277: 494-499.
817 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. (Contribution of Working Group I). In J.T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell and C.A. Johnson (eds.). Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY. 881pp.
818 Bunnell, F.L., K.A. Squires, M.I Preston and R.W. Campbell. 2005. Towards a general model of avian response to climate change. Pp. 59-70 in Implications of Climate Change in B.C.'s Southern Interior Forests. 2005 Workshop, Columbia Mountains Institute of Applied Ecology, Revelstoke, BC. 166pp. Available at: www.cmiae.org/pdf/ImpofCCinforestsfinal.pdf.
819 See endnote 524.
820 See endnote 159.
821 See endnote 804.
822 See endnote 518.
823 See endnote 516.
824 See endnote 434.
825 C. Rankin and Associates. 2004. Invasive Alien Species Framework for BC: Identifying and Addressing Threats to Biodiversity. B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Biodiversity Branch, Victoria, BC. 109pp. Available at: wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/wld/documents/alien_species_framework_BC_0205.pdf.
826 B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2002. Trends in Water Allocation Restrictions across British Columbia. In Environmental Trends in British Columbia 2002. State of the Environment Reporting Office, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soerpt/8surfacewateruse/allocations.html.
827 Blackman, B.G., D.A. Jesson, D. Ableson and T. Down. 1990. Williston Lake Fisheries Compensation Program Management Plan. Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program. Report No. 58. 38pp. Available at: www.bchydro.com/pwcp/pdfs/reports/pwfwcp_report_no_058.pdf.
828 Northcote, T.G. 1993. A Review of Management and Enhancement Options for the Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) With Special Reference to Williston Reservoir Watershed in British Columbia. Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program, Prince George, BC. PWFWCP Report No. 78. 69pp. Available at: www.bchydro.com/pwcp/pdfs/reports/pwfwcp_report_no_078.pdf.
829 Keddy, P.A. 2000. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 628pp.
830 Summit Environmental Consultants Ltd. 2007. Nicola River Watershed Present and Future Water Demand Study. Nicola Watershed Community Round Table, Merritt, BC. Project 466-01.02. Available at: www.nicolawump.ca/downloads/4660102FinalReportJune1907.pdf.
831 See endnote 805.
832 Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 1998. Strategic Review of Fisheries Resources for the Thompson Nicola Habitat Management Area. Fraser River Action Plan, Vancouver, BC. 128pp.
833 Walthers, L.C. and J.C. Nener. 1997. Continuous Water Temperature Monitoring in the Nicola River, BC, 1994: Implications of High Measured Temperatures for Anadromous Salmonids. 258 taking nature's pulse: the status of biodiversity in british columbia Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Vancouver, BC. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2158. 59pp.
834 Lauzier, R., T.J. Brown, I.V. Williams and L.C. Walthers. 1995. Water Temperature at Selected Sites in the Fraser River Basin During the Summers of
1993 and 1994. Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 956. 81pp.
835 Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 1999. Fraser River Basin Strategic Water Quality Plan - Thompson River Sub-Basin. Fraser River Action Plan, Vancouver, BC. Water Quality Series 02.
836 See endnote 830.
837 See endnote 833.
838 Walthers, L.C. and J.C. Nener. 1998. Water Temperature Monitoring in the Nicola River , BC, 1995: Implications of Measured Temperatures for Anadromous Salmonids. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Vancouver , BC . Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2443. 58pp.
839 Walthers, L.C. and J.C. Nener. 2000. Water Temperature Monitoring in Selected Thompson River Tributaries, BC, 1996: Implications of Measured Temperatures for Anadromous Salmonids. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Habitat and Enhancement Branch, Vancouver , BC . Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2306. 69pp.
840 See endnote 832.
841 Boeckh, I., V.S. Christie, A.H.J. Dorcey and H.J. Rueggeberg. 1991. Water use in the Fraser Basin. Pp. 181-200 in A. Dorcey and J.R. Griggs (eds.). Water in Sustainable Development: Exploring Our Common Future in the Fraser River Basin. Westwater Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
842 B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2002. Trends in Water Allocation Restrictions in British Columbia. In Environmental Trends in British Columbia 2002. State of the Environment Reporting Office, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soerpt/8surfacewateruse/gallocations.html.
843 See endnote 825.
845 Menge, B.A. and G.M. Branch. 2001. Rocky intertidal communities. Pp. 221-250 in M.D. Bertness, S.D. Gaines and M.E. Hay (eds.). Marine Community Ecology. Sinaurer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA.
846 R. Hebda, Royal British Columbia Museum, personal communication.
847 Ciruna, K., L.A. Meyerson, A.T. Gutierrez and E. Watson. 2004. The Ecological and Socio- Economic Impacts of Invasive Alien Species on Inland Water Ecosystems. Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Convention on Biological Diversity. Available at: www.cbd.int/doc/ref/alien/ias-inland-waters-en.pdf.
848 Gayton. D. 2007. Major impacts to Biodiversity in British Columbia (excluding climate change). Biodiversity BC, Victoria, BC. 28pp. Available at: www.biodiversitybc.org.
849 Wind, E. 2005. Effects of non-native predators on aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity Branch, B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. 118pp.
850 See endnote 825.
851 Voller, J. and R.S. McNay. 2007. Problem analysis: effects of invasive species on species at risk in British Columbia. FORREX Series 20. Available at: www.forrex.org/publications/forrexseries/series.asp.
852 See endnote 825.
853 See endnote 148.
854 Bosquet, Y. (ed.). 1991. Checklist of Beetles of Canada and Alaska. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. Publication 1861/E:430.
855 Maw, H.E.L., R.G. Foottit, K.G.A. Hamilton and G.G.E. Scudder. 2000. Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, ON. 220pp.
856 Foottit, R.G., S.E. Halberd, G.L. Miller, E. Maw and L.M. Russell. 2006. Adventive aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) of America north of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 108: 583-610.
857 B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2007. Species Conservation. Technical paper for Environmental Trends 2007. State of Environment Reporting Office, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soe/et07/07_species_conserv/technical_paper/species_conservation.pdf.
858 Hatfield, T. and S. Pollard. 2007. Non- native Freshwater Fish Species in British Columbia: Biology, Biotic Effects, and Potential Management Actions. Freshwater Fisheries Society of B.C. and B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC.
859 D. McPhail, University of British Columbia, Emeritus, personal communication.
860 See endnote 858.
861 Biodiversity BC. 2008. The Biodiversity Atlas of BC. Available at: www.biodiversitybc.org.
862 See endnote 805.
863 Bourne, N. 1982. Distribution, reproduction and growth of Manila clam, Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve) in British Columbia. Journal of Shellfish Research 2: 47-54.
864 Hempel, P. (ed.). 2000. High altitude POPs and alpine predators. Environment Canada. Science and the Environment Bulletin. Nov./Dec. 2000. Available at: www.ec.gc.ca/science/sandenov00/article1_e.html.
865 Chandler, T. 2005. Maintaining British Columbia's Biological Diversity: Issues and Opportunities For Coordinated Action. Unpublished report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection.
866 B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2006. British Columbia's Coastal Environment: 2006. State of Environment Reporting Office, Victoria, BC. 57pp. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soe/bcce/.
871 Ryan, J.J., B. Patry, P. Mills and G. Beaudoin. 2002. Body burdens and food exposure in Canada for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Organohalogen Compounds 51: 226-229.
872 See endnote 866.
873 See endnote 865.
875 See endnote 805. notes 259
876 See endnote 582.
877 Martin, T., E. Nygren, N. Dawe and G. Jamieson. 1996. Effects of disturbances of spring staging brant (Branta bernicula nigricans) in the Parksville-Qualicum Beach area of south-east Vancouver Island, B.C. Unpublished report prepared for Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Delta, BC.
878 See endnote 582.
879 B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. 1996. Ecoregions of British Columbia. Wildlife Branch, Victoria, BC.
880 See endnote 805.
881 See endnote 145.
882 See endnote 159.
883 See endnote 804.
884 See endnote 814.
885 Murdock, T.Q., A.T. Werner and D. Bronaugh. 2007. Preliminary Analysis of BC Climate Trends for Biodiversity. Biodiversity BC, Victoria, BC. 24pp. Available at: www.biodiversitybc.org.
886 Compass Resource Management. 2007. Major Impacts: Climate Change. Biodiversity BC, Victoria, BC. 41pp. Available at: www.biodiversitybc.org.
887 See endnote 138.
888 See endnote 817.
889 See endnote 98.
890 Zhang, Q-B. and R.J. Hebda. 2004. Radial growth patterns of Pseudotsuga menziesii along an elevational gradient on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 1946-1954.
891 See endnote 886.
892 See endnote 817.
893 Fischlin, A., G.F. Midgely, J.T. Price, R. Leemans, B. Gopal, C. Turley, M.D.A. Rounsevell, O.P. Dube, J. Tarazona and A.A. Velichko. 2007. Ecosystems, their properties, goods and services. Pp. 211-272 in M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 973pp.
894 Field, C.B., L.D. Mortsch, M. Brklacich, D.L. Forbes, P. Kovacs, J.A. Patz, S.W. Running and M.J. Scott. 2007. North America. Pp. 617-652 in M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 973pp.
895 See endnote 805.
896 See endnote 192.
897 See endnote 146.
898 See endnote 893.
900 See endnote 894.
901 See endnote 524.
902 See endnote 616.
903 See endnote 894.
904 Wilson, R.J., Z.G. Davies and C.D. Thomas. 2007. Insects and climate change: Process, patterns and implications for conservation. Pp. 245-279 in A.J.A. Stewart, T.R. New and O.T. Lewis (eds.). Insect Conservation Biology. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 464pp.
905 Parmesan, C. 2005. Detection at multiple levels: Euphydryas editha and climate change. Pp. 56-60 in T.E. Lovejoy and L. Hannah (eds.). Climate Change and Biodiversity. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. 440pp.
906 See endnote 15.
907 See endnote 818.
908 Bunnell, F.L. and K.A. Squires. 2005. Evaluating Potential Influence of Climate Change on Historical Trends in Bird Species. B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. Unpublished report. 48pp.
909 Hyatt, K.D., M.M. Stockwell and D.P. Rankin. 2003. Impact and adaptation response of Okanagan River sockeye salmon (Onchorhynchus nerka) to climate variation and change during freshwater migration: stock restoration and fisheries management implications. Canadian Water Resources Journal 28: 689-713.
910 Idler, D.R. and W.A. Clemens. 1959. The energy expenditures of Fraser River sockeye during the spawning migration to Chilko and Stuart lakes. International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission Progress Report 6. 80pp.
911 Gilhousen, P. 1980. Energy sources and expenditures in Fraser River sockeye salmon during their spawning migration. International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission Bulletin 23. 51pp.
912 Groot, C., W.C. Clarke and L. Margolis (eds.). 1995. Physiology of Pacific Salmon. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC. 515pp.
913 Quinn, T.P. and D.J. Adams.1996. Environmental changes affecting the migratory timing of American shad and sockeye salmon. Ecology 77: 1151-1162.
914 See endnote 244.
915 See endnote 582.
916 See endnote 866.
917 See endnote 582.
918 See endnote 866.
919 See endnote 885.
920 See endnote 893.
921 See endnote 886.
922 See endnote 817.
923 Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC). No date. Royal B.C. Museum maps. PCIC, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.pacificclimate.org/impacts/rbcmuseum/.
924 See endnote 885.
925 See endnote 886.
926 Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC). No date. Climate Overview. PCIC, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.pacificclimate.org/resources/climateimpacts/overview/.
927 See endnote 817.
928 See endnote 926.
929 See endnote 893.
930 See endnote 192.
931 Hebda, R.J. 1998. Atmospheric change, forests and biodiversity. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 49: 195-212.
932 See endnote 146.
933 See endnote 886
934 Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC). No date. Royal B.C. Museum maps and unpublished data. PCIC, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.pacificclimate.org/impacts/rbcmuseum/. 260 taking nature's pulse: the status of biodiversity in british columbia
935 See endnote 931.
936 See endnote 524.
937 See endnote 146.
938 T. Lea, B.C. Ministry of Environment, personal communication.
939 See endnote 931.
940 See endnote 893.
941 Nelitz M., K. Wieckowski, D. Pickard, K. Pawley and D.R. Marmorek. 2007. Helping Pacific Salmon Survive the Impact of Climate Change on Freshwater Habitats: Pursuing Proactive and Reactive Adaptive Strategies. Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council, Vancouver, BC. 122pp. Available at: fish.bc.ca/files/PFRCC- ClimateChange-Adaptation.pdf.
942 Tyedmers, P. and B. Ward. 2001. A Review of the Impacts of Climate Change on BC's Freshwater Fish Resources and Possible Management Responses. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. Research Report 9(7). Available at: www.fisheries.ubc.ca/publications/reports/report9_7.php.
943 See endnote 886.
944 B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2002. Salmon in the River. In Indicators of Climate Change for British Columbia 2002. Environmental Protection Division, Victoria, BC. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/air/climate/indicat/salmonriv_id1.html.
945 Murdock, T., J. Fraser and C. Pearce. 2006. Preliminary Analysis of Climate Variability and Change in the Canadian Columbia River Basin: Focus on Water Resources. Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC. 57pp. Available at: www.pacificclimate.org/publications/CBT.Assessment.pdf.
946 Nicholls, R.J., P.P. Wong, V.R. Burkett, J.O. Codignotto, J.E. Hay, R.F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden and C.D. Woodroffe. 2007. Coastal systems and low-lying areas. Pp. 315-356 in M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 973pp.
947 See endnote 942.
948 See endnote 886.
949 Palmer, S.L., I.R. Walker, M.L.. Henrichs, R. Hebda and G.G.E. Scudder. 2002. Postglacial midge community change and Holocene paleotemperature reconstructions near treeline, southern British Columbia (Canada). Journal of Paleolimnology 28: 469-490.
950 See endnote 98.
951 See endnote 192.
952 See endnote 98.
953 Rahmstorf, S., A. Cazenave, J.A. Church, J.E. Hansen, R.F. Keeting, D.E. Parker and R.C.J. Somerville. 2007. Recent climate observations compared to projections. Science 316: 709.
954 See endnote 886.
955 See endnote 524.
956 Clarke, A. 1993. Temperature and extinction in the sea: a physiologist's view. Paleobiology 19(4): 499-518.
957 See endnote 931.
958 See endnote 98.
959 See endnote 146.
963 See endnote 893.
964 See endnote 83.
965 See endnote 146.
966 See endnote 98.
968 See endnote 146.
969 See endnote 923.
970 See endnote 99.
971 See endnote 98.
972 See endnote 102.
973 See endnote 146.
974 See endnote 121.
975 See endnote 146.
976 See endnote 923.
977 See endnote 98.
978 Rosenberg, S.M., I.R. Walker and R.W. Mathewes. 2003. Postglacial spread of hemlock (Tsuga) and vegetation history in Mount Revelstoke National Park, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 81: 139-151.
979 See endnote 82.
980 See endnote 146.
981 See endnote 121.
982 J. Pojar, Consultant, personal communication.
983 Mooney, H.A. and R.J. Hobbs (eds.). 2000. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Island Press, Washington, DC.
984 McNeely, J.A., H.A. Mooney, L.E. Neville, P. Schei and J.K. Waage (eds.). 2001. A Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. IUCN Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK. 50pp. Available at: www.gisp.org/publications/brochures/globalstrategy.pdf.
985 See endnote 886.
986 See endnote 848.
988 Lee, M. and M. Hovorka. 2003. Invasive Alien Species in Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON. Available at: www.hww.ca/hww2p.asp?id=220&cid=0 .
989 See endnote 825.
990 B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range. 2007. State of British Columbia's Forests, 2006. Forest Practices Branch, Victoria, BC. 182pp. Available at: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/sof/2006/pdf/sof.pdf.
991 See endnote 848.
992 Guynn, Jr., D.C., S.T. Guynn, T. Bently Wigley and D.A. Miller. 2004. Herbicides and forest biodiversity: what do we know and where do we go from here? Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(4): 1085-1092.
993 See endnote 990.
994 Newmaster, S.G., R.J. Belland, A. Arsenault and D.H. Vitt. 2003. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in humid coastal and inland cedar hemlock forests of British Columbia. Environmental Reviews 11(1): 159-185.
995 Winchester, N.N. 2006. Ancient temperate rainforest research in British Columbia: a tribute to Dr. Richard A. Ring. Canadian Entomologist 138: 72-83.
996 Blood, D.A. 1998. Marbled Murrelet. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Wildlife Branch, Victoria, BC. 6pp.
997 Winchester, N.N. and L.L. Fagan. 2000. Canopy arthropods of montane forests on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 10: 355-361. notes 261
998 See endnote 159.
999 See endnote 866.
1000 McPhee, M., P. Ward, J. Kirkby, L. Wolfe, N. Page, K. Dunster, N.K. Dawe and I. Nykwist. 2000. Sensitive Ecosystems Inventory: East Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands 1993 - 1997. Volume 2: Conservation Manual. Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Delta, BC. 284pp.
1001 See endnote 379.
1002 See endnote 848.
1003 Stanton-Kennedy, T. 2005. Calculating Impermeable Surface Area in the Prince George "Bowl." University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. Available at: www.gis.unbc.ca/courses/geog300/projects/2005/stanton/index.php.
1004 Olewiler, N. 2004. The Value of Natural Capital in Settled Areas of Canada. Ducks Unlimited Canada and Nature Conservancy of Canada. 36pp.
1005 B.C. Stats. 2007. British Columbia Population
1867 to 2007. Available at: www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/DATA/pop/pop/bc1867on.csv.
1006 Sightline Institute. 2007. Cascadia Scorecard: Seven Key Trends Shaping the Northwest. Sightline Institute, Seattle, WA. 68pp. Available at: www.sightline.org/research/cascadia_scorecard/.
1007 B.C. Stats. 1997. First 1996 Census Release - Population and Dwellings. Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations, Victoria, BC. Infoline 97-16. 5pp. Available at: www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/releases/info1997/in9716.pdf.
1008 B.C. Stats. 2003. 2001 Census Profile. 18pp. Available at: www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/data/cen01/profiles/59000000.pdf.
1009 Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District. 2002. Interim Report on Effectiveness of Stormwater Source Control. 44pp. Available at: www.gvrd.bc.ca/sewerage/stormwater_reports_1997_2002/sc_assessment_interim/report_interim_mar02(2).pdf.
1010 Guthrie, R. and J. Deniseger. 2001. Impervious Surfaces in French Creek. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Nanaimo, BC. 25pp. Available at: wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/vir/es/pdf/Impervious.
1011 Jeffrey, M. 2002. Identification of Eco-Industrial Networking Opportunities in Greater Vancouver: Demand Side Management Benefits. Greater Vancouver Regional District, Policy and Planning Division, Vancouver, BC. 48pp. Available at: www.drsociety.bc.ca/TEIP/documents/ein_opportunities_study.pdf.
1012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. No date. Puget Sound Georgia Basin Ecosystem Indicator Report: Executive Summary. 2pp. Available at: www.epa.gov/region10/psgb/indicators/urbaniz_forest_change/media/pdf/Urbanization and Forest Change Indicator Summary.pdf.
1013 Davis, C. No date. Synthesis of data and methods across scales to connect local policy decisions to regional environmental conditions: the case of the Cascadia Scorecard. 20pp. Available at: ma.caudillweb.com/documents/bridging/papers/davis.chris.pdf.
1014 Haskell, D.G. 2000. Effects of forest roads on macroinvertebrate soil fauna of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Conservation Biology 14: 57-63.
1015 Reed, R.A., J. Johnson-Barnard and W.L. Baker. 1996. Contribution of roads to forest fragmentation in the Rocky Mountains. Conservation Biology 10: 1098-1106.
1016 Ito, T.Y., N. Miura, B. Lhagvasuren, D. Enkhbileg, S. Takatsuki, A. Tsunekawa and Z. Jiang. 2005. Preliminary evidence of a barrier effect of a railroad on the migration of Mongolian gazelles. Conservation Biology 19: 945-948.
1017 Marsh, D.M., G.S. Milam, N.P. Gorham and N.G. Beckman. 2005. Forest roads as partial barriers to terrestrial salamander movement. Conservation Biology 19: 2004-2008.
1018 Epps, C.W., P.J. Palsbøll, J.D. Wehausen, G.K. Roderick, R.R. Ramey III and D.R. McCullough. 2005. Highways block gene flow and cause a rapid decline in genetic diversity of desert bighorn sheep. Ecology Letters 8: 1029-1038.
1019 See endnote 848.
1020 Trombulak, S.C. and C.A. Frissell. 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conservation Biology 14: 18-30.
1021 Forman, R.T.T. 2000. Estimate of the area affected ecologically by the road system in the United States. Conservation Biology 14: 31-35.
1022 See endnote 159.
1023 See endnote 145.
1024 Westcoast Environmental Law. 2003. Pump it Out: The Environmental Costs of BC's Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. 109pp. Available at: www.wcel.org/wcelpub/2003/14028.pdf.
1025 See endnote 159.
1026 See endnote 805.
1027 See endnote 848.
1028 Hatfield, T., A. Lewis and D. Ohlson. 2002. British Columbia Instream Flow Standards for Fish Phase 1 - Initial Review and Consultation. B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC.
1029 Hatfield, T., A. Lewis, D. Ohlson and M. Bradford. 2003. Development of instream flow thresholds as guidelines for reviewing proposed water uses. B.C. Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management and B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC.
1030 See endnote 170.
1032 See endnote 848.
1033 B.C. Hydro. 2008. Generation System. Available at: www.bchydro.com/info/system/system15240.html.
1034 See endnote 848.
1035 B.C. Hydro. 2008. Our Facilities. Available at: www.bchydro.com/info/system/system15274. html.
1036 See endnote 848.
1037 Northcote, T.G. 1998. Inland waters and aquatic habitats. In G.G.E. Scudder and I.M. Smith (eds.). Assessment of Species Diversity in the Montane Cordillera Ecozone. Ecological Monitoring and 262 taking nature's pulse: the status of biodiversity in british columbia Assessment Network, Burlington, ON. Available at: www.naturewatch.ca/eman/reports/publications/99_montane/intro.html.
1038 Fearnside, P.M. 2004. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroeclectric dams: controversies provide a springboard for rethinking a supposedly 'clean energy source' - an editorial comment. Climatic Change 66: 1-8.
1039 See endnote 1035.
1041 The Energy and Biodiversity Initiative. 2003. Integrating Biodiversity Conservation into Oil and Gas Development. 58pp. Available at: www.celb.org/ImageCache/CELB/content/energy_2dmining/ebi_2epdf/v1/ebi.pdf.
1042 See endnote 805.
1043 M. Winfield, B.C. Ministry of Environment, personal communication.
1044 See endnote 805.
1045 Lions Gate Consulting Inc. 2003. Tourism Opportunity Strategy: Bonnington Sustainable Resource Management Zone. Report for the Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management. 195pp. Available at: www.taskbc.bc.ca/documents/Bonnington_TOS_000.pdf.
1046 Marlyn Chisholm and Associates. 2002. Shuswap Tourism Opportunity Study. Prepared for the Salmon Arm Economic Development Corporation and the Columbia Shuswap Regional District. 183pp. Available at: ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/cis/initiatives/tourism/tos/Shuswap/finalreport.pdf.
1047 UBC Interactive Digital Environmental Assessment Laboratory (IDEAL). 2006. Motorized Recreation Perspectives for TFL 38. 13pp. Available at: www.ideal.forestry.ubc.ca/cons481/Labs/MRG..pdf.
1048 Bleich, V.C., R.T. Bowyer, A.M. Pauli, M.C. Nicholson and R.W. Anthes. 1994. Mountain sheep Ovis canadensis and helicopter surveys: ramifications for the conservation of large mammals. Biological Conservation 70: 1-7.
1049 Simpson, K. and E. Terry. 2000. Impacts of Backcountry Recreation Activities on Mountain Caribou - Management Concerns, Interim Management Guidelines and Research Needs. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Wildlife Branch, Victoria, BC. Wildlife Working Report No. WR-99. 11pp.
1050 Harper, W.L. and D. Eastman. 2000. Wildlife and Commercial Backcountry Recreation in British Columbia: Assessment of Impacts and Interim Guidelines for Mitigation. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC.
1051 Bergerud, A.T. 1996. Evolving perspectives on caribou population dynamics: have we got it right yet? Rangifer Special Issue No. 9: 95-116.
1052 Goldstein, M.I., A.J. Poe, E. Cooper, D. Youkey, B.A. Brown and T.L. McDonald. 2005. Mountain goat response to helicopter overflights in Alaska. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33: 688-699.
1053 Stokowski, P.A., and C.B. LaPointe. 2000. Environmental and Social Effects of ATVs and ORVs: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Assessment. University of Vermont, School of Natural Resources. Available at: bluewaternetwork.org/reports/rep_atv_ socialeffects.pdf.
1054 Acoustic Ecology Institute. 2001. Motorized Vehicle Management. Available at: www.acousticecology.org/wildlandvehicles.html.
1055 See endnote 1047.
1056 Orchard, S.A. 1991. Provincial status report for the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Wildlife Branch, Victoria, BC. Unpublished report. 31pp.
1057 Sarell, M.J. 1996. Status of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) in British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Wildlife Branch, Victoria, BC. 18pp.
1058 Knapp, R.A., K.R. Matthews and O. Sarnelle. 2000. Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecological Monographs 71(3): 401-421.
1059 Pilliod, D.S. and C.R. Peterson. 2001. Local and landscape effects of introduced trout on amphibians in historically fishless watersheds. Ecosystems 4: 322-333.
1060 Pierce, C.L. and B.D. Hinrichs. 1997. Response of littoral invertebrates to reduction of fish density: simultaneous experiments in ponds with different fish assemblages. Freshwater Biology 37: 397-408.
1061 Bechara, J.A., G. Moreau and D. Planas. 1992. Top-down effects of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a boreal forest stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 2093-2103.
1062 See endnote 244.
1063 Grasslands Conservation Council of B.C. 2004. BC Grasslands Mapping Project - A Conservation Risk Assessment: Final Report. Available at: www.bcgrasslands.org/projects/conservation/mapping.htm.
1064 R. Doucette, Grasslands Conservation Council of B.C., personal communication.
1065 See endnote 804.
1066 See endnote 848.
1067 See endnote 1063.
1068 See endnote 804.
1069 See endnote 848.
1070 See endnote 159.
1071 See endnote 804.
1072 See endnote 848.
1074 B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. No date. Fisheries and Aquaculture - Frequently Asked Questions: Non-salmon Species. Available at: www.env.gov.bc.ca/omfd/fishstats/aqua/species.html.
1075 See endnote 804.